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PostSubject: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:14 pm

What Is Nutrition? Why Is Nutrition Important?

Nutrition, nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials - food - required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods.

In hospitals, nutrition may refer to the food requirements of patients, including nutritional solutions delivered via an IV (intravenous) or IG (intragastric) tube.

Nutritional science studies how the body breaks food down (catabolism) and repairs and creates cells and tissue (anabolism) - catabolism and anabolism = metabolism. Nutritional science also examines how the body responds to food. In other words, "nutritional science investigates the metabolic and physiological responses of the body to diet".

As molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics advance, nutrition has become more focused on the steps of biochemical sequences through which substances inside us and other living organisms are transformed from one form to another - metabolism and metabolic pathways.

What are the eight most popular diets today?
Nutrition also focuses on how diseases, conditions and problems can be prevented or lessened with a healthy diet.

Nutrition also involves identifying how certain diseases, conditions or problems may be caused by dietary factors, such as poor diet (malnutrition), food allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.
What is the difference between a dietician and a nutritionist?
A dietician studied dietetics, while a nutritionist studied nutrition. The two terms are often interchangeable, however they are not 100% identical.

Dietetics: the interpretation and communication of the science of nutrition so that people can make informed and practical choices about food and lifestyle, in both health and disease. Part of a dietician's course includes both hospital and community settings. The majority of dieticians work in health care, education and research, while a much smaller proportion also work in the food industry. A dietician must have a recognized degree (B.Sc. or M.Sc), or postgraduate degree in nutrition and dietetics to work as a dietician.

Nutrition: the study of nutrients in food, how the body uses nutrients, and the relationship between diet, health and disease. Major food manufacturers employ nutritionists and food scientists. Nutritionists may also work in journalism, education and research. Many nutritionists work in the field of food science and technology.

There is a lot of overlap between what nutritionists and dieticians do and studied. Some nutritionists work in health care, some dieticians work in the food industry, but a higher percentage of nutritionists work in the food industry and food science and technology, and a higher percentage of dieticians work in health care.
One could very loosely generalize and say that a nutritionist focuses firstly on a food, and then looks at its effects on people, while a dietician looks at the human, and then how that human's health is influenced by food.

If I discovered a new fruit and wanted to find out what it consisted of I would go to a nutritionist. If I found out I had a long-term disease and wanted to know whether I needed to adjust my food intake because of the disease, I would go to a dietician. Please bear in mind that this very loose comparison is both subjective and possibly too geographically bound on my part (British, National Health Service), and is simply aimed at exaggerating the differences so that lay people may see some gap between the two - differences and disagreements in my interpretation will exist in different countries, within regions of a countries, and also from college to college - and many in those areas will disagree with each other.

From what I can glean from hundreds of studies and texts that I read as an editor of a medical journal, in the USA, Australia, and to a lesser extent in the UK and the Republic of Ireland, people who call themselves dieticians are more likely to have full university bachelor's or postgraduate qualifications, while nutritionists mostly do as well, but a higher proportion may not.

In the US, dietitians are registered or licensed with the Commission for Dietetic Registration and the American Dietetic Association, and are only able to use the title dietitian as described by the business and professions codes of each respective state, when they have met specific educational and work experience requirements and passed a national registration or licensure examination, respectively.
Everyone in medicine is involved in nutrition
If you ask any health care professional, be it a doctor, nurse, psychologist, or dentist to identify a part of medicine that is not at all related to nutrition, there will be a long silence as they scratch their heads.

Nutrition is present in all processes of life. Right from the very moment the sperm fertilizes an egg, through fetal development in the uterus, to the birth, human growth, maturity, old age, and eventual death. Even after death the human body serves as nutrition for other organisms. Anything that involves life and chemical or biochemical movement has nutrition at its core.

Anything that lives is dependent on energy, which results from the combustion of food.
The human body requires seven major types of nutrients
A nutrient is a source of nourishment, an ingredient in a food, e.g. protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral, fiber and water. Macronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively large quantities. Micronutrients are nutrients we need in relatively small quantities.

Energy macronutrients - these provide energy, which is measured either in kilocalories (kcal) or Joules. 1 kcal = 4185.8 joules.

Carbohydrates - 4 kcal per gram

Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates include monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, glactose), sisaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch).

Nutritionally, polysaccharides are more favored for humans because they are more complex molecular sugar chains and take longer to break down - the more complex a sugar molecule is the longer it takes to break down and absorb into the bloodstream, and the less it spikes blood sugar levels. Spikes in blood sugar levels are linked to heart and vascular diseases.

Proteins - 4 kcal per gram

Molecules contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Simple proteins, called monomers, are used to create complicated proteins, called polymers, which build and repair tissue. When used as a fuel the protein needs to break down, as it breaks down it gets rid of nitrogen, which has to be eliminated by the kidneys.

Fats - 9 kcal per gram

Molecules consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Fats are triglycerides - three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Fatty acids are simple compounds (monomers) while triglycerides are complex molecules (polymers). For more details on dietary fat, go to What is fat? How much fat should I eat?

Other macronutrients. These do not provide energy

Fiber

Fiber consists mostly of carbohydrates. However because of its limited absorption by the body, not much of the sugars and starches get into the blood stream. Fiber is a crucial part of essential human nutrition. For more details go to What is fiber? What is dietary fiber?

Water

About 70% of the non-fat mass of the human body is water. Nobody is completely sure how much water the human body needs - claims vary from between one to seven liters per day to avoid dehydration. We do know that water requirements are very closely linked to body size, age, environmental temperatures, physical activity, different states of health, and dietary habits. Somebody who consumes a lot of salt will require more water than another person of the same height, age and weight, exposed to the same levels of outside temperatures, and similar levels of physical exertion who consumes less salt. Most blanket claims that 'the more water you drink the healthier your are' are not backed with scientific evidence. The variables that influence water requirements are so vast that accurate advice on water intake would only be valid after evaluating each person individually.

Micronutrients

Minerals

Dietary minerals are the other chemical elements our bodies need, apart from carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. The term "minerals" is misleading, and would be more relevant if called "ions" or "dietary ions" (it is a pity they are not called so). People whose intake of foods is varied and well thought out - those with a well balanced diet - will in most cases obtain all their minerals from what they eat. Minerals are often artificially added to some foods to make up for potential dietary shortages and subsequent health problems. The best example of this is iodized salt - iodine is added to prevent iodine deficiency, which even today affects about two billion people and causes mental retardation and thyroid gland problems. Iodine deficiency remains a serious public health problem in over half the planet.

Experts say that 16 key minerals are essential for human biochemical processes by serving structural and functional roles, as well as electrolytes:

Potassium
What it does - a systemic (affects entire body) electrolyte, essential in co-regulating ATP (an important carrier of energy in cells in the body, also key in making RNA) with sodium.
Deficiency - hypokalemia (can profoundly affect the nervous system and heart).
Excess - hyperkalemia (can also profoundly affect the nervous system and heart).

Chloride
What it does - key for hydrochloric acid production in the stomach, also important for cellular pump functions.
Deficiency - hypochleremia (low salt levels, which if severe can be very dangerous for health).
Excess - hyperchloremia (usually no symptoms, linked to excessive fluid loss).

Sodium
What it does - a systemic electrolyte, and essential in regulating ATP with potassium.
Deficiency - hyponatremia (cause cells to malfunction; extremely low sodium can be fatal).
Excess - hypernatremia (can also cause cells to malfunction, extremely high levels can be fatal).

Calcium
What it does - important for muscle, heart and digestive health. Builds bone, assists in the synthesis and function of blood cells.
Deficiency - hypocalcaemia (muscle cramps, abdominal cramps, spasms, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes).
Excess - hypercalcaemia (muscle weakness, constipation, undermined conduction of electrical impulses in the heart, calcium stones in urinary tract, impaired kidney function, and impaired absorption of iron leading to iron deficiency).

Phosphorus
What it does - component of bones and energy processing.
Deficiency - hypophosphatemia, an example is rickets.
Excess - hyperphosphatemia, often a result of kidney failure.

Magnesium
What it does - processes ATP and required for good bones.
Deficiency - hypomagnesemia (irritability of the nervous system with spasms of the hands and feet, muscular twitching and cramps, and larynx spasms).
Excess - hypermagnesemia (nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, low blood pressure). Very rare, and may occur if patient has renal problems.

Zinc
What it does - required by several enzymes.
Deficiency - short stature, anemia, increased pigmentation of skin, enlarged liver and spleen, impaired gonadal function, impaired wound healing, and immune deficiency.
Excess - suppresses copper and iron absorption.

Iron
What it does - required for proteins and enzymes, especially hemoglobin.
Deficiency - anemia.
Excess - iron overload disorder; iron deposits can form in organs, particularly the heart.

Manganese
What it does - a cofactor in enzyme functions.
Deficiency - wobbliness, fainting, hearing loss, weak tendons and ligaments. Less commonly, can be cause of diabetes.
Excess - interferes with the absorption of dietary iron.

Copper
What it does - component of many redox (reduction and oxidation) enzymes.
Deficiency - anemia or pancytopenia (reduction in the number of red and white blood cells, as well as platelets) and a neurodegeneration.
Excess - can interfere with body's formation of blood cellular components; in severe cases convulsions, palsy, and insensibility and eventually death (similar to arsenic poisoning).

Iodine
What it does - required for the biosynthesis of thyroxine (a form of thyroid hormone).
Deficiency - developmental delays, among other problems.
Excess - can affect functioning of thyroid gland.

Selenium
What it does - cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes.
Deficiency - Keshan disease (myocardial necrosis leading to weakening of the heart), Kashing-Beck disease (atrophy degeneration and necrosis of cartilage tissue).
Excess - garlic-smelling breath, gastrointestinal disorders, hair loss, sloughing of nails, fatigue, irritability, and neurological damage.

Molybdenum
What it does - vital part of three important enzyme systems, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase. It has a vital role in uric acid formation and iron utilization, in carbohydrate metabolism, and sulfite detoxification.
Deficiency - may affect metabolism and blood counts, but as this deficiency is often alongside other mineral deficiencies, such as copper, it is hard to say which one was the cause of the health problem.
Excess - there is very little data on toxicity, therefore excess is probably not an issue.

Vitamins

These are organic compounds we require in tiny amounts. An organic compound is any molecule that contains carbon. It is called a vitamin when our bodies cannot synthesize (produce) enough or any of it. So we have to obtain it from our food. Vitamins are classified by what they do biologically - their biological and chemical activity - and not their structure.

Vitamins are classified as water soluble (they can dissolve in water) or fat soluble (they can dissolve in fat). For humans there are 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C) vitamins - a total of 13.

Water soluble vitamins need to be consumed more regularly because they are eliminated faster and are not readily stored. Urinary output is a good predictor of water soluble vitamin consumption. Several water-soluble vitamins are manufactured by bacteria.

Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestines with the help of fats (lipids). They are more likely to accumulate in the body because they are harder to eliminate quickly. Excess levels of fat soluble vitamins are more likely than with water-soluble vitamins - this condition is called hypervitaminosis. Patients with cystic fibrosis need to have their levels of fat-soluble vitamins closely monitored.

We know that most vitamins have many different reactions, which means they have several different functions. Below is a list of vitamins, and some details we know about them:

Vitamin A
chemical names - retinol, retinoids and carotenoids.
Solubility - fat.
Deficiency disease - Night-blindness.
Overdose disease - Keratomalacia (degeneration of the cornea).

Vitamin B1
chemical name - thiamine.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Overdose disease - rare hypersensitive reactions resembling anaphylactic shock when overdose is due to injection. Drowsiness.

Vitamin B2
chemical name - riboflavin
Solubility - water
Deficiency disease - ariboflanisosis (mouth lesions, seborrhea, and vascularization of the cornea).
Overdose disease - no known complications. Excess is excreted in urine.

Vitamin B3
chemical name - niacin.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - pellagra.
Overdose disease - liver damage, skin problems, and gastrointestinal complaints, plus other problems.

Vitamin B5
chemical name -pantothenic acid.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - paresthesia (tingling, pricking, or numbness of the skin with no apparent long-term physical effect).
Overdose disease - none reported.

Vitamin B6
chemical name - pyridoxamine, pyridoxal.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - anemia, peripheral neuropathy.
Overdose disease - nerve damage, proprioception is impaired (ability to sense stimuli within your own body is undermined).

Vitamin B7
chemical name - biotin.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - dermatitis, enteritis.
Overdose disease - none reported.

Vitamin B9
chemical name - folinic acid.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - birth defects during pregnancy, such as neural tube.
Overdose disease - seizure threshold possibly diminished.

Vitamin B12
chemical name - cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin, methylcobalamin.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - megaloblastic anemia (red blood cells without nucleus).
Overdose disease - none reported.

Vitamin C
chemical name - ascorbic acid.
Solubility - water.
Deficiency disease - scurvy, which can lead to a large number of complications.
Overdose disease - vitamin C megadosage - diarrhea, nausea, skin irritation, burning upon urination, depletion of the mineral copper, and higher risk of kidney stones.

Vitamin D
chemical name - ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol.
Solubility - fat.
Deficiency disease - rickets, osteomalacia (softening of bone), recent studies indicate higher risk of some cancers.
Overdose disease - hypervitaminosis D (headache, weakness, disturbed digestion, increased blood pressure, and tissue calcification).

Vitamin E
chemical name - tocotrienols.
Solubility - fat.
Deficiency disease - very rare, may include hemolytic anemia in newborn babies.
Overdose disease - one study reported higher risk of congestive heart failure.

Vitamin K
chemical name - phylloquinone, menaquinones.
Solubility - fat.
Deficiency disease - greater tendency to bleed.
Overdose disease - may undermine effects of warfarin.

Most foods contain a combination of some, or all of the seven nutrient classes. We require some nutrients regularly, and others less frequently. Poor health may be the result of either not enough or too much of a nutrient, or some nutrients - an imbalance.
A brief history of nutrition

The Bible, Book of Daniel - Daniel was captured by the King of Babylon and had to serve in the King's court. Daniel objected to being fed fine foods and wine, saying he preferred vegetables, pulses and water. The chief steward reluctantly agreed to a trial, comparing Daniel's dietary preference to those of the court of the King of Babylon. For ten days Daniel and his men had their vegetarian diet, while the King's men had theirs. The trial revealed that Daniel and his men were healthier and fitter, so they were allowed to carry on with their diet.

Hippocrates (Greece, ca460BC - ca370BC), one nutrient theory - according to Hippocrates everybody is the same, no matter what they have been eating, or where they have lived. He concluded that every food must contain one nutrient which makes us the way we are. This one-nutrient myth continued for thousands of years. Hippocrates is also famous for having said "Let thy food be thy medicine and thy medicine be thy food."

Antoine Lavoisier (France, 1743-1794) - became known as the father of chemistry and also the father of nutrition. He became famous for the statement "Life is a chemical process". He also designed the "calorimeter", a device which measured heat produced by the body from work and consumption from different amounts and types of foods. At the age of 24 he became a member of the French Academy of Science. In 1794, during the French Revolution, he was beheaded.

Christiaan Eijkman (Holland, 1858-1930) - a famous physician and pathologist (doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope). He noticed that some of the people in Java developed Beriberi, a disease which leads to heart problems and paralysis. When he fed chickens a diet consisting mainly of white rice they also developed Beriberi type symptoms, but the chickens fed unprocessed brown rice did not. White rice has the outer bran removed, while brown rice does not. When he fed brown rice to patients with Beriberi they were cured. Many years later it was found that the outer husks (outer bran) in rice contain thiamine, or vitamin B1. Together with Sir Frederick Hopkins, he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology/Medicine.

Dr. James Lind (Scotland, 1716-1794) - a pioneer on hygiene in the Scottish and Royal (British) navies. He stressed the importance of good ventilation, cleanliness of sailor's bodies, clean bedding, below deck fumigation, fresh water by distilling sea water, and the consumption of citrus fruits to prevent and cure scurvy. He is well respected today for his work in improving practices in preventive medicine and improved nutrition. He published his Treatise on Scurvy. Many decades later British sailors were known as Limeys because they regularly consumed lime juice and enjoyed better health and vigor than sailors in most other navies.

Dr. William Beaumont (USA, 1785-1853) - a surgeon in the US Army. He became known as the Father of gastric physiology for his research on human digestion. Beaumont met Alexio St. Martin, a French trapper who was shot in the stomach. Beaumont treated him but was unable to close the hole in his stomach, which healed with an opening to the outside (a fistula). St. Martin allowed Beaumont to make observations periodically, even allowing him to fiddle around with his innards, which must have been painful. This allowed Beaumont to conduct several experiments and make some important discoveries and conclusions, including:

The stomach is not a grinder.
There is no internal "spirit" selecting good purpose foods one way and discarding bad purpose foods to waste.
Digestion occurs because of digestive juices which are secreted from the stomach.
Foods are not digested separately and sequentially, but rather all the time and at different rates.
Stomach rumblings are caused by stomach contractions, and nothing else.
Fat is digested slowly.

Dr. Stephen Babcock (USA, 1843-1931) - an agricultural chemist. He is known for his Babcock test which determines dairy butterfat in milk and cheese processing. He is also known for the single-grain experiment that eventually led to the development of nutrition as a science.

Babcock had the idea of feeding dairy cattle with just one food source, either all corn plant or all wheat plant. He placed two heifers on either diet. However, when one of his animals died they were all taken away and he was not allowed to continue researching.

Eventually, Babcock's associates, Hart, Humphrey, McCollum, and Steenbock conducted the experiments again. Four five-month-old heifers were each fed either exclusively feed from corn plant, wheat plant, oat plant, or all three mixed together. They all put on weight at approximately the same rate during the first 12 months. However, the corn-fed cows went on to have normal calves, while the wheat-fed cows gave birth to either dead calves or calves that died soon after birth. They also noted that the corn-fed cows produced three times as much milk as the wheat-fed ones. They concluded that:

either
the wheat contained something that was bad for the cows
or
the corn had an essential nutrient that wheat did not have

A succession of discoveries eventually found that something in the fat soluble portion of the corn affected reproduction. The scientists called this factor A - What we know today as Vitamin A.

Kazimierz Funk (Poland,1884- 1967) - a biochemist. Funk mistakenly thought these new things being discovered, such as factor A contained animes. As these animes were vital, he coined the term vitamins (vital animes).

As research evolved and further active properties were found, the water soluble ones were labeled B. It became obvious that more than one thing was involved in the water soluble substance, leading to the labels B1, B2, B3, etc. Some turned out not to be vitamins, while others were found to be the same as others - this explains why B vitamin numbers suddenly jump from 9 to 12, or 7 to 9. Vitamin B12 was discovered in 1948 by Karl A. Folkers (USA) and Alexander R. Todd (UK) and reported in 1949. They isolated the active ingredient, a cobalamin. It could also be injected straight into muscle as a treatment for pernicious (potentially fatal) anemia.

Vitamin C was clarified thanks to research carried out with guinea pigs. Very few animals, including humans, guinea pigs, primates, some bats, some birds, and some reptiles require vitamin C from food - all other animals are able to synthesize it internally (produce it themselves).

The era of discovering disease-preventing essential nutrients ended in 1948/49 with the discovery of Vitamin B12. Some other substances have since been discovered outside this "era" of great discoveries.

Some other famous people in the history of nutrition:

1925 - Edwin B. Hart discovered that trace amounts of copper are essential for iron absorption.

1927 - Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus synthesized Vitamin D, for which he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

1928 - Albert Szent-Györgyi isolated ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). In 1932 he proved that it was Vitamin C by preventing scurvy. In 1937 he synthesized Vitamin C and won the Nobel Prize.

1930s - William Cumming Rose identified essential amino acids which the body cannot synthesize, but which are necessary protein components.

1935 - Eric John Underwood and Hedley Marston discovered the necessity of cobalt. They were not working together - the discoveries were made independently.

1936 - Eugene Floyd Dubois demonstrated that school and work performance are linked to caloric intake.

1938 - Erhard Ferhnholz discovered the structure of Vitamin E, which was later synthesized by Paul Karrer.

1940 - Elsie Widdowson drew up the nutritional principles for rationing which took place in the United Kingdom during and after World War II. Widdowson also oversaw the government mandated addition of vitamins to food during World War II and some post-war years. Widdowson and Robert McCance coauthored The Chemical Composition of Foods in 1940, which became the basis for modern nutritional thinking.

1941 - The National Research Council (USA) set up the first RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowances).

1968 - Linus Pauling coined the term orthomolecular nutrition. He proposed that by giving the body the right molecules in the right concentration - optimum nutrition - these nutrients would be better utilized and provide superior health and contribute towards longer lives. Pauling's work was the basis for future research which eventually led to large intravenous doses of Vitamin C for improving survival times and quality of life of some terminal cancer patients. Pauling was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

1992 - the Department of Agriculture (USA) set up the Food Guide Pyramid, which was to be subsequently criticized by nutritionists throughout the world for different reasons.

2002 - a link between violent behavior and nutrition was revealed in a Natural Justice study (USA).

2005 - researchers found that the adenovirus is a cause of obesity, as well as bad nutrition.

Nutrition in medical education
Historically, experts in medical education - people who decide what medical students should learn - have all agreed that some aspects of nutrition should be included in courses. However, the greatest obstacle for a very long time was agreeing about what to teach. In 1989 the American Society for Clinical Nutrition Committee on Medical/Dental School and Residency Nutrition Education published a list of 26 high-priority topics that should form part of the medical curriculum. Those given the highest priority were:
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:20 pm

what is nutrition education
what is nutrition for kids
Nutrition for Children
Proper nutrition in childhood can reinforce lifelong eating habits that contribute to your children's overall well being and help them to grow up to their full potential and a healthy life.

Expert Nutrition Q & A (35)
Baby Food (16)
Breastfeeding (96)
Baby Formula (26)
Food Allergies
Starting Solid Foods (18)
Food Pyramid (Cool
Fruits (3)
Milk (17)
Picky Eaters (13)

Fast Food (13)
Cholesterol and Children (13)
Calcium (15)
Boosting Calories (5)
Recipes (17)
Vegetables (6)
Vitamins (19)
Water (6)
Childhood Obesity

Eating Less - Using Portion Control and Mind Control to Eat Less Food
Learn how to use portion control and mind control to help your kids eat less, as eating less is an important part of most healthy eating habits to ward off childhood obesity.
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Understanding Child Nutrition
Taking some time to understand the basics of child nutrition, from newborns to teens, can help you avoid common mistakes, make healthy choices, and teach your kids healthy eating habits.
Parents Respond - Getting Kids to Eat Healthy
Most nutrition experts recommend against forcing kids to eat foods they don't like or making them "clean" their plates. So how do you get them to eat more vegetables, fruits, and other healthy foods? How do you avoid power struggles and mealtime battles in your home? How do you get your kids to eat healthy foods?
Best Foods for Kids Quiz
Take a quiz about the best foods for kids to see if you know everything you should to help make sure your kids are eating healthy foods and avoiding junk food.
Best Foods for Kids
Although you don't want to get in the habit of forcing your kids to eat foods they don't like or make them "clean" their plates, there are lots of healthy foods kids like. Parents often overlook these healthy foods and go straight to what they think are more "kid-friendly foods," such as hot dogs, pizza, french fries, chicken nuggets, juice and soda.
Healthy Eating - Healthy Eating Plan for Kids
A healthy eating plan that you can use to help your kids reach the food pyramid goals and recommendations for eating fruit, vegetables, whole grains, lean meats, and drinking milk.
Fiber - Fiber Recommendations for Kids
Fiber is an important part of a healthy diet and most experts recommend that both children and adults eat a high fiber diet. Learn how much fiber your kids should be getting in their diet each day and about finding foods high in fiber.
Vitamin E - Sources of Vitamin E
Although parents don't think about it much, vitamin E is an important vitamin that kids need. Learn how to make sure your kids are getting enough vitamin E from the foods they are eating, including nuts, vegetable oils, leafy greens, and fortified cereal.
Vegetables
If there was one thing that parents could change about their child's eating habits, it would usually be to get them to eat more vegetables. Learn about current recommendations for eating vegetables, lists of vegetables, vegetables recipes, and how to get your kids to eat more vegetables.
Whole Foods
Eating more whole foods is a good way to replace many of the processed snacks and foods that have a lot of extra sugar, fat (including trans fat),salt, and other things added to them and a lot of good things taken out, like fiber.
Food Groups
The food pyramid has long encouraged kids to eat foods from each of the food groups each day, but that only works if you and your kids understand what the food groups actually are. Learn about the five food groups, what nutrients your child can get from each, and what the MyPlate campaign says about food groups.
Nutrition Facts Quiz
Do your kids eat healthy foods? Can you even recognize which foods are nutritious and which are less than healthy? This Nutrition Facts Quiz will test your ability to spot healthy and unhealthy foods by reviewing the Nutrition Facts section of the food label of popular foods that you may see in the grocery store.
Reading Food Labels
Learn how to read food labels so that you can choose foods that will provide your family with a nutritious and balanced diet.
Low Fat Foods
As you learn to avoid high fat foods for all other children, it is just as important to learn to choose low fat foods as part of your family's healthy diet. In addition to food labeled fat-free and low fat, healthy low fat foods include most fruits and vegetables.
High-Fat Foods
Parents are getting used to the idea that there are certain foods that they should encourage their kids to eat and others that they should avoid. Of course, this usually means avoiding high fat foods.
High Calorie Foods
Review this list of high calorie foods to avoid, especially if your kids are overweight, and some you might want to encourage your kids to eat if they are poor eaters and underweight and you are trying to boost their calories.
High Fiber Foods
Review these lists of high fiber foods to find healthy foods for your child, and learn which foods are good sources of fiber, including many fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans), breads, and cereals.
Junk Food
It is generally recognized that kids eat too much junk food, which is likely contributing to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Learn how to recognize and avoid junk food from your child's diet.
Iron Rich Foods
Review this list of iron rich foods so that you can give your kids at least two or three foods that have a lot of iron in them each day and avoid iron deficiency anemia.
Organic Food
Parents who are worried about the possible presence of pesticides, antibiotics, and even growth hormone in the foods that their kids eat have been turning to organic food for their family. Learn whether organic food is safer or more nutritious and whether you should be buying organic food for your kids.
Healthy Snacks for Kids
In addition to their three regular meals, kids often get quite a few calories from the snacks they eat throughout the day. Make sure your kids are eating healthy snacks, including low-fat, low-calorie foods such as fresh fruits and raw vegetables.
Protein Rich Foods
Review common protein rich foods that your kids may be eating and learn if your children are getting enough protein in their diet.
Eat This Not That! For Kids! Book
Eat This Not That! For Kids! is a great book to help parents learn to make healthier choices at restaurants, when buying food at the grocery store, and even at school.
Healthy Lunches for Kids
Learn how to encourage your kids to eat a healthy lunch at school, including lunch ideas for your child's lunch box that encourage good eating habits.
Restaurants - Eating Healthy for Kids
As hard a time as some parents have getting their kids to eat healthy at home, it can seem almost impossible when you take them out to eat, especially if they usually choose foods from the kids' menu. Learn how to help your kids eat healthy when eating out at restaurants.
Folate - Folate Rich Foods
Folate is an important vitamin, which most parents are aware of because of the association of low folate levels with premature babies and birth defects. Of course, kids need folate too. Learn about folate rich foods, so that you can make sure your kids are getting enough folate in their diet.
Fast Food - Fast Food at Home
But even those parents who avoid going to fast food restaurants too often typically overlook the fact that their kids eat too much fast food at home, including frozen pizza, hot dogs, french fries, fruit juice, and soda. Learn how to eat healthier meals at home and avoid fast food at home.
Whole Grains - Whole Wheat Bread and Whole Grain Cereals
According to the food pyramid, at least half of the grains that kids eat each day should be whole grains, such as 100% whole wheat bread. Learn how to choose and encourage your kids to eat more whole grain foods, including brown rice, whole grain pasta and whole grain cereals.
Printable Food Diary
A food diary can be a great way to keep track of the calories your kids are eating, especially if they are overweight, and to make sure that they are getting enough fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals, etc., from all of the different food groups.
Calories - Calories in Food
Although you usually shouldn't have to count calories each and every day, it can be helpful to know about the calories in the foods your kids eat. This is especially important if your child is already overweight.
Food Coloring
Food coloring and food dyes have been used throughout history, although until recently, most food coloring was natural and didn't include the artificial food dyes that are commonly used today. It is this artificial food coloring that is causing some controversy now, being blamed for causing ADHD and other behavior problems. Learn if you should...
Food Portion Sizes
Parents often have a lot of time figuring out how much to feed their children, whether it is a toddler who doesn't seem to be eating enough, or an older child who is already overweight and is eating too much. Understanding the normal portion sizes, which depend on your child's age, can help to make sure your child is getting the right amount to eat.
Groceries
As you learn about healthy food and avoiding junk food, you can really put those lessons to work at the grocery store when you buy groceries. Learn how to make a healthy grocery list for your family and which groceries you might want to keep out of your shopping cart.
Eating with a Spoon and Fork
A photo of a toddler feeding himself with a spoon, a milestone most children reach between 13 and 21 months, although they may still be messy.
Healthy Food
As parents work to avoid junk food, they often struggle to find alternative foods for their kids to eat. Learn to choose healthy food for your kids to eat.
Probiotics for Kids
Probiotics seem like they are the next "new thing" in infant and child nutrition. Should you give your child probiotics as a supplement, from yogurt, or infant formula?
Calorie Calculator
Our Calorie Calculator will help you determine how many calories that you and your kids need each day.
Foods High in Salt
Avoiding foods high in salt is not on top of the list for most parents, but maybe it should when you consider the possible link between obesity and high salt diets and the risk of high blood pressure.
Caffeine
Review why children and teens should not get caffeine in their diet and which drinks have caffeine in them and healthier caffeine free alternatives.
Food High in Potassium
Potassium is an important mineral that some parents look to increase in their children's diet, especially if they start complaining of things like growing pains. Learn which foods are high in potassium to help make sure your kids are getting enough of this important mineral in their diet.
Soda and Drink Guidelines
Healthy drink choices for your family, which you can also start at home to set a good example, might include drinking low fat milk, water, limited amounts of 100% fruit juice, and avoiding soda, fruit drinks, and other high sugar, high calorie drinks.
Raisins - Health Food or Junk Food?
Depending on who you ask, you might hear raisins referred to as the perfect snack for kids or "nature's candy" or as just another junk food that increases their risk of getting cavities. Review whether or not you should let your kids eat raisins.
Diet and Constipation
Review common causes of constipation and how you can prevent and treat your child's constipation with simple changes to your child's diet.
2005 Dietary Guidelines
Review the new Dietary Guidelines to help people make better food choices and live healthier lives.
Eating Fruits and Vegetables
Review why eating fruits and vegetables are important and how you can get your kids to eat more of them.
Child Nutrition By The Book
These 'Child Nutrition By The Book' guidelines can help you to make healthy choices when planning your family's diet.
Dietary Guidelines and the ABC's of Nutrition
These Dietary Guidelines from the USDA offer sound advice that will help to promote your health and reduce your risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, stroke, and osteoporosis.
Leftover Halloween Candy
Review what to do with your child's leftover Halloween candy so that you and your kids aren't eating and picking at it for weeks and weeks, which may lead to an extra 3 or 4 pound weight gain going into the holiday season.
Vitamin D Supplements for Kids
Vitamin D is now again being recommended for infants who are exclusively breastfed or who aren't drinking enough infant formula or milk.
Eggs and Child Nutrition
I am worried about my kids also getting high cholesterol. Should I let them eat eggs? How many eggs can my kids eat each week?
Children's Vitamins
What to know before you buy vitamins for your children. Important vitamins and minerals include iron, calcium, fluoride, and Vitamin A, C and D.
Fish and Mercury
I am pregnant and have heard warnings about eating fish. Is it safe to eat fish while I am expecting? Is it safe for my toddler to eat tuna fish?
Fruit Juice - How Much Juice Is Too Much?
Drinking too much fruit juice can contribute to obesity, the development of cavities (dental caries), diarrhea, and other gastrointestinal problems, such as excessive gas, bloating and abdominal pain. Learn about the AAP recommendations on juice consumption for infants and children.
Fruits and Vegetables
How many fruits and vegetables should my 3 and 8 year old children be eating each day?
Toddler Milk and Calcium Requirements
My 14 month old has a milk intolerance. He has been on a soy formula, because he has diarrhea every time that we tried to give him a cow's milk based formula. He also had diarrhea when we recently tried to introduce regular cow's milk. Does he really need to drink milk?
Food Allergies and Children
Food allergies affect up to 6% of children and can cause serious and even life threatening reactions. Learn about allergic reactions, the most common foods that cause allergies in children (eggs, milk, peanuts, soy and wheat), having multiple allergies and about food labeling to avoid foods with ingredients that your child is allergic to.
Kids and Low Fat Diets
Researchers predict that nearly half of all children in North and South America will be overwieght by 2010. One-third are already considered overweight. How can we lower the fat in children's diets and help them lead healthier lives?
Child Nutrition
Nutrition for children and teens: family resources for eating healthy at school and at home.
Bright Futures Nutrition Resources
Offers age appropriate nutrition guidelines to provide your children with a healthy diet. Includes information about high blood pressure, iron deficiency anemia, eating disorders, overweight children, vegetarian diets, and sports nutrition.
Children's Nutrition Reseach Center
Facts and Answers from the CNRC, including information ranging from anemia and day care nutrition, to vegetarianism and dietary supplements.
Vegetarian Health & Nutrition Information
The health benefits of a plant-based diet are well documented, but whatever your dietary choices, we all need to make sure we have an adequate intake of essential nutrients. This section will help you ensure your diet is balanced and provides information about specific nutrients as well as special needs.
Formula Feeding and Newborn Nutrition
Helpful information for parents who have chosen to bottlefeed their babies.
Eat Right from the American Dietetician Association
The ADA web site, with nutrition tips, fact sheets, dieting help, and other nutrition resources, including position statements and how to find a registered dietician in your area.
KidFood - Activities With Your Kids
Activities for parents and their children to help promote healthy nutrition, including using the food guide pyramid, shopping, cooking and choosing foods together, and growing plants.
Kids Eat Great
How to get kids to eat great and love it, with healthy eating habits for children of all ages, a nutrition newsletter, and tips for eating a healthy diet for kids and parents.
NNCC Nutrition Guide
From the National Network for Child Care, information about common nutrition issues, food related activities, breastfeeding basics, meals and snacks and food safety.
Fruits and Veggies More Matters
Fruits & Veggies--More Matters is a national public health initiative created to encourage Americans to eat more fruits and vegetables--fresh, frozen, canned, dried and 100% juice.
Nutrition in the Fast Lane
Detailed nutrition information on meals your children may eat at many popular fast food restaurants. Does a Double Whopper with Cheese really have over 1000 calories?
School Food Tool Kit
Advice on how to improve school foods and beverages.
USDA Center for Nutrition
A guide to the new food guide pyramids, with dietary guidelines and food plans.
Drink This - Calories in Drinks for Kids
When you hand your kids a glass of milk and say 'drink this,' do they turn their head and look for a soft drink or glass of chocolate milk? Learn why extra calories in drinks can contribute to childhood obesity problems and healthier drinks you should be offering your kids.
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:21 pm

what is nutrition for teenagers

Nutrition Guide For Teenagers
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Nutrition guide for teenagers: the teen years are an important stage in human development. Be sure to have proper nutrition to help your body grow.

In the teen years, nutrition is very important. But it is also a time when getting proper nutrition is not always easy. Because of the big changes that are going on in your body, the way you decide to deal with your nutrition needs now can make a big difference not only in how you feel today, but also in your well-being in years to come.

If you are between 15 and 18, you're completing your final major growth spurt and on your way to becoming an adult.

For girls, this means adding some fat padding. For boys, it means adding muscle and increasing the volume of blood. These changes often encourage girls to diet unnecessarily to stay slim, while boys may overeat to satisfy their appetites. Both can lead to health problems down the road, and, incidentally, probably will not do the job you want right now.

So what is the right approach to healthy eating?

A good start is to eat a variety of foods, as suggested in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published by the U.S. departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Get the many nutrients your body needs by choosing a variety of foods from each of these groups:

· vegetables

· fruits

· breads, cereals, rice, and pasta

· milk, yogurt and cheese

· meat, poultry, fish, dried beans and peas, eggs, and nuts.

The pace for teens is fast and getting faster. Added to pressures from school to prepare for college or a job, many teens take part in sports and work part-time. This often means eating on the run. Stack that on top of the snack foods you eat on dates or when you get together with friends, and you may not be taking in a balance of nutrients.

Many snacks, such as potato chips, fast-food cheeseburgers, and fries, have high levels of fat, sugar or salt--ingredients that are usually best limited to a small portion of your diet. Healthy eating doesn't mean that you can't have your favorite foods, but the Dietary Guidelines advise you to be selective and limit the total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium you eat. Our main source of saturated fat comes from animal products and hydrogenated vegetable oils, with tropical oils--coconut and palm--providing smaller amounts. Only animal fat provides cholesterol. Sodium mostly comes from salt added to foods during processing, home preparation, or at the table.

Fats are our most concentrated source of energy. Scientists know that eating too much fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, increases blood cholesterol levels, and therefore increases your risk of heart disease. Too much fat also may lead to overweight and increase your risk of some cancers.

Dietitians recommend that no more than 30 percent of your calories come from fats, and not more than 10 percent of these calories should be from saturated fat. Choose lean meats, fish, poultry without skin, and low-fat dairy products whenever you can. When you eat out, particularly at fast-food restaurants, look for broiled or baked rather than fried foods. Try the salad bars more often, but pass up creamy items and limit the amount of salad dressing you use to keep down the fat and calories. Look for milk-based high-calcium foods with reduced fat.

A moderate amount of sodium in your diet is necessary, because sodium, along with potassium, maintains the water balance in your body. But for some people, too much sodium can be a factor in high blood pressure. Since processed foods often contain large amounts of sodium, it's wise to use salt sparingly when cooking or at the table--and to avoid overeating salty snacks like pretzels and chips.

Whole-grain breads and cereals, dried beans and peas, vegetables, and fruits contain various types of dietary fiber essential for proper bowel function. Eating plenty of these fiber-rich foods may reduce your risk of cancer and heart disease.

The benefits from a high-fiber diet may be related to the foods themselves and not to fiber alone. For this reason, it's best to get fiber from foods rather than from the fiber supplements you can purchase in a store.

The need for iron for both boys and girls increases between the ages of 11 and 18. The National Academy of Sciences recommends teenage boys get 12 milligrams of iron a day, mostly to sustain their rapidly enlarging body mass. For girls, the recommended daily requirement is 15 milligrams to offset menstrual losses that begin during this time.

It's important to plan how to get adequate iron in your diet. Iron from meat, poultry and fish is better absorbed by your body than the iron from plant sources. However, the absorption of iron from plants is improved by eating fruit or drinking juice that contains vitamin C with the iron-rich food.

Teens need extra calcium to store up an optimal amount of bone (called peak bone mass). The richest sources of calcium are milk and other dairy products. Building optimal bone mass through a balanced diet, including adequate calcium, may help delay the onset or limit your chances of developing osteoporosis later in life. Osteoporosis is a disease in which reduced bone mass causes bones to break easily. It occurs in both men and women, but is more common among older women.

Some teens have a difficult time projecting a healthy weight for themselves. Girls especially may think they need to be thinner than they are, or should be. Extraordinary concern or obsession for thinness leads some teens to the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa (dieting to starvation) or bulimia (overeating and then vomiting If you're concerned about your weight, it's important to talk to a health professional such as your family doctor or the school nurse. That person can help you decide whether you do need to lose weight and, if so, the best way to achieve and maintain a weight that is healthy for you.

If health professionals recommend that you need to lose weight, most experts say it's best to increase your exercise as the first step. Often that's all teens need to do for weight control because they're rapidly growing. If eating less is also necessary, it is best to continue eating a variety of foods while cutting down on fats and sugars.

Skipping meals to lose weight is a poor idea. You're likely to overeat at the next meal just because you're so hungry. And surveys show that people who skip breakfast or other meals tend to have poorer nutrition than those who don't.
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:23 pm

what is nutrition science

Major: Nutrition Sciences

In terms of health, we are what we eat. Nutrition science majors study how our bodies transform everything from hot dogs to salads into energy we can use. They also study how changes like aging, illness, exercise, and pregnancy affect our digestion.

As a student of nutrition sciences, you'll explore the latest research in, for example, the benefits and possible dangers of antioxidants.

Nutrition sciences majors research the complex relationship between the body, nutrients, and health.
Did You Know?

Vitamin C is an antioxidant. Found in oranges, spinach, and many other foods, it will help you get over a cold, and may even keep you from catching one.

Are You Ready To...?

Study the nutritional requirements of children, athletes, or others with special needs
Contribute to a professor’s research project as part of a seminar class
As part of an internship, work in the research department of a food-processing company
Write a senior thesis (long research paper) on vegetarianism or the benefits of antioxidants, for example
Work for the college health center, counseling peers on nutrition

It Helps to Be...

Fascinated by biological processes on the molecular and cellular levels.
College Checklist

What research are professors currently involved in?
Will you have the chance to work on their projects?
How good are the laboratory and research facilities?
Will you get the chance to research and write a senior thesis?
Will the program help you find an internship?

Did You Know?

Our nutritional needs change as we grow older.

Course Spotlight

As a junior or senior, you’ll probably take a series of classes on human nutrition. They’ll be divided into two parts. In the first part, you’ll learn basic theories about how the body processes nutrients. In the second part, you will learn how age, gender, and various diseases affect the ways in which nutrients are absorbed.
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:31 pm

what is nutrition response testing

Welcome to Nutrition Response Testing
Did you hear about us from someone who was very happy with their results?
However you heard most of our new patients have been referred to us by other satisfied patients.
about us, you probably want to know what “Nutrition Response Testing” is - and what we do.

What is Nutrition Response Testing?
Nutrition Response Testing is very precise and scientific. However, if I were to analyze you using Nutrition Response Testing before it was explained to you, you might find it strange, or simply not believable - only because it is probably very different from anything you may have experienced before.
I can completely understand that because when I first saw this type of work being done, my first reaction was “Hmm, what is this strange stuff?” No one was more skeptical than I was. As a result, I studied Nutrition Response Testing extensively to see if it was for real. And I am sure happy I did because it has helped me improve my health, and because of Nutrition Response Testing, we are able to help you improve your health.
Quite frankly, if you want to get healthy and stay healthy, it is important that you understand what Nutrition Response Testing is, and what our recommendations are based on.
Otherwise, you are less likely to follow through and actually do what you need to do to get well. To put it simply, if you don’t follow through, you won’t get well. And if you are not going to get well, why do it in the first place?
The results we have been having with Nutrition Response Testing are often in the 90% and better range. The only reason we are here is to help you get well. We have no other reason. That is why I want to make sure you get the correct understanding of what Nutrition Response Testing is right form the start.

Let’s get started!
In medical practice there are two key parts: the diagnosis (identifying and /or naming the “disease” or syndrome) and the treatment (drugs, surgery, etc.).
In Nutrition Response Testing we do not diagnose or treat disease - but we also have two parts: the analysis and the personal health improvement program (using designed clinical nutrition).
Simply put, first we do an analysis, and then we design a natural health improvement program to help you handle what we find in our analysis of your body and condition.

First the Analysis.

The analysis is done through testing the body’s own neurological reflexes and acupuncture points. The neurological reflexes are derived from the part of the nervous system whose job is to regulate the functions of each and every organ. The acupuncture points are selected from the ancient Chinese system of acupuncture, which is thousands of years old.
Nutrition Response Testing is a study of how the different points on the surface of the body regulate to the state of health and to the flow of energy in each and every organ and function of the body.
Interestingly, since the human anatomy has now changed significantly in thousands of years, the utilization of these reflexes and specific points have become extremely useful in our practice because they are so accurate!

Think about it!
Each Nutrition Response Testing reflex represents a specific organ, tissue, or function, and indicates the effect that energy, or the lack of energy, is having on the body. By testing the Nutrition Response Testing reflexes, we have a system of monitoring your body at each visit that has proven to be extremely accurate clinically, and that helps us identify exactly what the body needs and how well we are meeting that need.
Doesn’t this sound like something you would want for yourself in order to predict, with certainty, what is needed and wanted by the body to get you to the next stage of improved health?
How do we access the Nutrition Response Testing reflexes to get this information?
If I were to hook you up to an electrocardiograph machine and take a reading, that would make perfect sense to you, right?
What is actually happening during this procedure? Electrical energy form the heart is running over the wires. This electrical energy makes the electrocardiograph record the energy pattern in the form of a graph or chart. I could then study this graph and tell you what it all means.
Here is what we do with Nutrition Response Testing. Instead of connecting electrodes to the specific points being tested, the Nutrition Response Testing doctor contacts these points with his/her own hand. With his other hand, he/she will test the muscle strength of your extended arm. If the reflex being contacted is active, the nervous system will respond by reducing energy to the extended arm, and the arm will weaken and drop. This drop signifies underlying dysfunction, which can be affecting your health.
Why is the person who referred you feeling better?
Because we did a Nutrition Response Testing analysis for him or her, we found the “active” reflexes, and then made specific nutritional recommendations to help the body return to a better state of health.
We are prepared to do the exact same thing for you now. Isn’t that exciting? However, the best is yet to come.


The second part - the “Personalized Health Improvement Program”
Let’s say the liver or kidney reflexes are active. Then what?
Our next step is to test specific, time - tested and proven, highest possible quality nutritional formulas against those weak areas to find which ones bring the reflexes back to strength.
Our decades of clinical experience tell us that when we have found the correct nutritional supplements, as indicated by this procedure, and when we work out a highly personalized nutritional supplement schedule, we have accomplished the most important first step correcting the underlying deficiency or imbalance that caused the reflex to be active in the first place. By following the program as precisely as possible, you are well on your way to restoring normal function and improving your health.
It’s that simple!
In medicine, the medical doctor makes a diagnosis and then uses drugs or surgery to attack or suppress the symptom, or to surgically remove the “offending” organ or part.
In Nutrition Response Testing we use “ DESIGNED CLINICAL NUTRITION” to correct the cause of the problem, so that the body can regain the ability to correct itself.


What exactly is DESIGNED CLINICAL NUTRITION
First of all, Designed Clinical Nutrition is not ‘over-the-counter’ vitamins. Over-the-counter vitamins are pharmaceutically engineered chemical fractions of vitamin structures reproduced in a laboratory. They are not “whole food,”
They are not “whole food,” and the body does not actually recognize these as anything even vaguely beneficial (to put it mildly). Please ask about our audiotape: “The Whole Truth About Vitamins,” for an entertaining, in-depth explanation of this aspect of vitamins and other nutritional supplements. Because they are not made from whole foods, “over-the-counter” vitamins lack the essential synergistic elements normally present in WHOLE foods.
And example of a whole food could be carrots. Carrots are high in Vitamin A Complex. A “complex” is something made up of many different parts that work together. Synthetic vitamin A does not contain the whole “Vitamin A Complex” found in nature. So, if we were looking for a food high in Vitamin A, carrots might be one of our choices.
If one actually were deficient in any of the components of Vitamin A Complex, one would be wise to seek out a supplement that was made from whole foods that were rich in this complex - not from chemicals engineered in a laboratory to look like one little part of the vitamin A Complex that was erroneously been labeled as “Vitamin A.”
Vitamins that are being used all over today generally only need to have a small percentage of their actual content derived from natural sources to be labeled “natural”. If they are not derived from whole foods, they often make you even more deficient and nutritionally out–of-balance. They can create other health problems because they do not contain all of the co-factors found in nature that make the vitamins work.
So-called “scientific research,” done with these shoddy substitutes, repeatedly “proves” that vitamins are good for anyone! Can you imagine who pays for these “researches”?
“Designed Clinical Nutrition” is exactly that: designed (especially prepared based on a specific plan) clinical (pertaining to the results gotten in clinical use or actual practice on huge numbers of patients over many years) nutrition (real food, designed by nature to enable the body to repair itself and grow healthfully).
It is whole food in a tablet, capsule or powder, concentrated in a vacuum, cold-process system that preserves all of the active enzymes and vital components that make it work as the Creator intended. These real food supplements have been designed to match the needs of the body, as determined by the positive response shown when tested against the active Nutrition Response Testing reflexes that were found on your individual Nutrition Response Testing analysis. These are nutrients you are simply not getting, or not assimilating, in your current diet.
These deficiencies may be due to your past personal eating habits and routines, but it is for sure due, in some large extent, to the lack of quality in the foods commercially available in grocery stores or restaurants today.


SUMMARY
Through an analysis of your body’s reflexes, we help you to determine the exact nutrients you need to supplement your diet, in order to bring about balance and better health.
We make sure these highly concentrated therapeutic formulations available to you in tablets, capsules, or in powdered form to “supplement” your current diet. That’s why they are called “food supplements.”
Depending on your individual situation, we might also require that you make some specific changes in your diet & eating habits, and in your routines, in order to bring about the best possible results.
How are these products produced?
One example of a designed clinical nutrition supplement that we use is called “Catalyn”. This product
is produced by starting with a wide variety of carefully chosen organically grown vegetables, taking the water and fiber out using a vacuum, low heat process without heating or cooking the vegetables, and then utilizing the concentrated food to make a bottle of Standard Process Catalyn Tablets.
The key to this whole procedure is the way it is done, using the “Standard Process” method:
Standard Process nutrients are derived from plants grown on their own farms, in soil free of pesticides—and no chemicals are ever used. Ph.D.’s check the soil before the seeds are sown, to make sure of the fertility of the soil - and even the weeding is done by hand.
The machinery involved in the processing of these products is made of glass and stainless steel only.
The temperature used in processing harvested plants is never raised above the point of 90 degrees Fahrenheit, so that the active ingredients are not cooked; they remain active and alive, and have a very long shelf life.
Your vitality and energy is derived from live food. Most foods today are all dead - or are not really foods at all—as in boxed cereals, canned vegetables, soda, pop, etc. You can readily understand the difference between dead, devitalized pseudo-foods, with the synthetic or isolated vitamins on the one hand, and “Designed Clinical Nutrition” and a diet of real foods, on the other.

There is a great deal of technology and know - how behind what we do.
Having been designed through decades of clinical use of tens of thousands of patients, and on patients from many different types of health care practitioners, you can be assured that Nutrition Response Testing is capable of evaluating and solving your health concerns.
A complete Nutrition Response Testing analysis can be done on each patient on each subsequent visit, thereby revealing the next layers of dysfunction so these can also be addressed and corrected.
In this way, each patient gets a completely individualized handling in the correct sequence for his or her body.
Very much like opening a combination lock, you must use the right numbers in the right sequence and in the right direction the right time - then the lock falls open.
By following the correct sequence as revealed through Nutrition Response Testing, you don’t “shot - gun” your diet or supplements. With a correctly done Nutrition Response Testing analysis, we can determine the correct food supplements for you - designed to give your body the best possible chance of getting well and staying that way.


Conclusion
Many people we see in our practice have eaten themselves into their current state of ill-health , to one degree or another. The deficiencies or imbalances lead to a breakdown in resistance, or immunity, and a loss of the ability to cope with environmental stresses (chemical, microscopic, or otherwise).
The good news is that it is possible to reverse the process!
It is possible to restore your health
What could be more natural? What could be more correct? Each cell, tissue, and organ in your body is in the process of replacing itself every day, month, and year. The health of each organ is dependent on making the correct nutrients available to upgrade or to maintain the health of the body at a cellular level.
Designed Clinical Nutrition provides the right basic materials.
Nutrition Response Testing tells you when and what to use to bring about the desired result.
With this understanding of what we do, can you see how we might be able to help you do something effective to get yourself well?
And once that is achieved, do you see how you might be able to use this approach to stay well?
Now you have the complete 1 - 2 - 3 package. You now know:
What we do
How and why we do it
What you need to do to have the potential of restoring your health and staying healthy.
But in the end you are the one responsible for your own condition. And with our guidance, we feel that - if you are a Nutrition Response Testing case - your chances of greatly improving your health can be as high as 90% or better.
In our experience, if our analysis indicates that you are not an Nutrition Response Testing / nutritional case then in all probability, while a nutritional program may give you some benefit, it may not give you the maximum results you desire.
But if our analysis confirms that you are an Nutrition Response Testing / clinical nutrition case, then, in our experience, nothing else will ever come close to what you can possibly achieve using Nutrition Response Testing and Designed Clinical Nutrition.
We wish the best of good luck in your quest to take back full responsibility for your health. Just remember to do it one step at time, and that we are here to guide you in that quest.
Once we accept your case, you can count on us to do everything in our power to help you achieve a healthier, happier life.
May you never be the same.
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:37 pm

what is nutrition facts

The nutrition facts label (also known as the nutrition information panel, and various other slight variations) is a label required on most packaged food in many countries.

Such standardized labeling is considered distinctly from free-form marketing claims, such as: "Source of Fibre", "Soluble Fiber", "Omega3", "Excellent Source of Calcium", "No preservatives", "No artificial ... ", and so on.
Contents
[hide]

1 Regional manifestations
1.1 Australia and New Zealand
1.2 Canada
1.3 European Union
1.4 India
1.5 Mexico
1.6 United States
2 See also
3 Further information
4 References

[edit] Regional manifestations
[edit] Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand use a nutritional information panel of the following format:
NUTRITION INFORMATION Servings per package: x
Serving size: y g (or mL etc.)
Quantity per Serving Quantity per 100 g (or 100 mL etc.)
Energy n1 kJ (n′1 Cal) m1 kJ (m′1 Cal)
Protein n2 g n2 g
Fat, total n3 g n3 g
  - saturated n4 g n4 g
Carbohydrate n5 g n5 g
  - sugars n6 g n6 g
Sodium n7 mg n7 mg

Other items are included as appropriate, and the units may be varied as appropriate.[1]
[edit] Canada

In Canada, a standardized "Nutrition Facts" label was introduced as part of regulations passed in 2003, and became mandatory for most prepackaged food products on December 12, 2005. (Smaller businesses were given until December 12, 2007 to make the information available.)[2].

Canadian regulation tightly controls the manner in which the nutrition fact table (NFT) data is laid out. There is a wide variety of possible formats for use on a given food package. A selection hierarchy is used to select among the many formats (28 main formats, and 2-7 sub formats for each). This results in standard (vertical) formats being considered for use before horizontal and linear formats. The selection hierarchy also allows the NFT to occupy no more than 15% of the physical package's available display area (ADS), but never to be smaller than a format that would be <=15% of ADS. In practice, determining the ADS of a package, and selecting the appropriate NFT format, can be a detailed calculation.
[edit] European Union

It is regulated by the Commission Directive 2008/100/EC of 28 October 2008 amending Council Directive 90/496/EEC on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs as regards recommended daily allowances, energy conversion factors and definitions.[2]

In the European Union, the information (usually in panel format) is most often labeled "Nutrition Information" (or equivalent in other EU languages). The panel is optional, but if provided, the prescribed content and format must be followed. It will always give values for a set quantity — usually 100 g (3.5 oz) or 100 ml (3.5 imp fl oz; 3.4 US fl oz) of the product — and often also for a defined "serving". First will come the energy values, in both kilocalories and kilojoules.

Then will come a breakdown of constituent elements: usually most or all of protein, carbohydrate, starch, sugar, fat, fibre and sodium. The "fat" figure is likely to be further broken down into saturated and unsaturated fat, while the "carbohydrate" figure is likely to give a subtotal for sugars.

For most foods, there are no specific legal definitions of terms such as "low fat" or "high fibre", although spreadable fats (e.g. butter and margarine) do have statutory requirements for the quantity of fat they contain. However, terms such as "reduced calorie" may not be used unless they can be shown to be considerably lower in calories than the "usual" version of the product.

Provided the full nutrition information is shown on the packet, additional nutritional information and formats (e.g. a traffic light rating system) may be included and this falls outside the scope of regulation.

The United Kingdom regulations are given in Schedules 6 and 7 of the Food Labelling Regulations 1996.[3]
[edit] India

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare had, on September 19, 2008, notified the Prevention of Food Adulteration (5th Amendment) Rules, 2008, mandating packaged food manufacturers to declare on their product labels nutritional information and a mark from the I.S.O, F.P.O and/or Agmark (Companies that are responsible for checking food products) to enable consumers make informed choices while purchasing.[4] Prior to this amendment, disclosure of nutritional information was largely voluntary though many large manufacturers tend to adopt the international practice.[5]
[edit] Mexico

Food products sold in Mexico use the NOM-051-SCFI-1994 "Información nutrimental" product labelling standard (which is very similar to "Nutrition Facts" in the U.S.). The Official Mexican Standard, or NOM (Norma Oficial Mexicana), was developed by the Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial Promotion (Secretaría de Comercio y Fomento Industrial, or SCFI), now a part of the Secretary of the Economy (SECOFI). It entered into effect on January 24, 1996,[6] and defines "General specifications for labelling foods and pre-bottled non-alcoholic beverages".[7]
[edit] United States

In the United States, the Nutritional Facts label lists the percentage supplied that is recommended to be met, or to be limited, in one day of human nutrients based on a daily diet of 2,000 calories (kcal).

With certain exceptions, such as foods meant for babies, the following Daily Values are used.[8] These are called Reference Daily Intake (RDI) values and were originally based on the highest 1968 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for each nutrient in order to assure that the needs of all age and sex combinations were met.[9] These are older than the current Recommended Dietary Allowances of the Dietary Reference Intake. For vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and manganese, the current maximum RDAs (over age and sex) are up to 50% higher than the Daily Values used in labeling, whereas for other nutrients the estimated maximal needs have gone down. As of October 2010, the only micronutrients which are required to be included on all labels are vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.[10] To determine the nutrient levels in the foods, companies may develop or use databases, and these may be submitted voluntarily to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for review.[11]
Nutrient Daily Value for label highest RDA of DRI
Vitamin A 5000 IU 3000 IU
Vitamin C 60 mg 90 mg
Calcium 1000 mg 1300 mg
Iron 18 mg 18 mg
Vitamin D 400 IU 600 IU
Vitamin E 30 IU 15 mg (33 IU of synthetic)
Vitamin K 80 μg 120 μg
Thiamin 1.5 mg 1.2 mg
Riboflavin 1.7 mg 1.3 mg
Niacin 20 mg 16 mg
Vitamin B6 2 mg 1.7 mg
Folate 400 μg 400 μg
Vitamin B12 6 μg 2.4 μg
Biotin 300 μg 30 μg
Pantothenic acid 10 mg 5 mg
Phosphorus 1000 mg 1250 mg
Iodine 150 μg 150 μg
Magnesium 400 mg 420 mg
Zinc 15 mg 11 mg
Selenium 70 μg 55 μg
Copper 2 mg 900 μg
Manganese 2 mg 2.3 mg
Chromium 120 μg 35 μg
Molybdenum 75 μg 45 μg
Chloride 3400 mg 2300 mg

In certain cases this label is not yet required by law, so a list of ingredients should be present instead. Ingredients are listed in order from highest to lowest quantity, according to their weight.

The label was mandated for most food products under the provisions of the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA), per the recommendations of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[3]. It was one of several controversial actions taken during the tenure of FDA Commissioner Dr. David Kessler. The law required food companies to begin using the new food label on packaged foods beginning May 8, 1994. (Meat and poultry products were not covered by NLEA, though the U.S. Department of Agriculture proposed similar regulations for voluntary labeling of raw meat and poultry.[12]) Foods labeled before that day could use the old label. This appeared on all products in 1995. The old label was titled "Nutrition Information Per Serving" or simply, "Nutrition Information".

The label begins with a standard serving measurement, calories are listed second, and then following is a breakdown of the constituent elements. Always listed are total fat, sodium, carbohydrates and protein; the other nutrients usually shown may be suppressed if they are zero. Usually all 15 nutrients are shown: calories, calories from fat, fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron.

Products containing less than 5 g of fat show amounts rounded to the nearest 0.5 g. Amounts less than 0.5 g are rounded to 0 g. For example, if a product contains 0.45 g of trans fat per serving, and the package contains 18 servings, the label would show 0 g of trans fat, even though the product actually contains a total of 8.1 g of trans fat.

In addition to the nutrition label, products may display certain nutrition information or health claims on packaging. These claims are not necessarily regulated and do not have to adhere to industry standards. The Institute of Medicine recommended these labels contain the most useful nutritional information for consumers: saturated fats, trans fats, sodium, calories, and serving size.[13] In January 2011, food manufacturers and grocery stores announced plans to display some of this nutrition information on processed food.[14]

The nutrition facts label currently appears on more than 6.5 billion food packages. President Bill Clinton issued an award of design excellence for the nutrition facts label in 1997 to Burkey Belser in Washington, DC.[15]

The FDA does not require any specific typeface be used in the Nutrition Facts label, mandating only that the label "utilize a single easy-to-read type style",[16] though its example label uses Helvetica.[17]

In 2009, a federal appellate court rejected the New York State Restaurant Association’s challenge to the city’s 2007 regulation requiring most major fast-food and chain restaurants to prominently display calorie information on their menus. The rule applies to restaurants that are part of chains with at least 15 establishments doing business nationally
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PostSubject: Re: what is nutrition   Sun Aug 28, 2011 4:43 pm

what is nutrition transition
what is nutrition transition


Nutrition transition
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Increased consumption of unhealthy foods compounded with increased prevalence of overweight in middle-to-low-income countries is typically referred to as the “Nutrition Transition.” It occurs in conjunction to the Epidemiological Transition and has serious implications in terms of public health outcomes, risk factors, economic growth and international nutrition policy. Nutrition transition is malnutrition ensuing not merely from a need for food, but the need for high-quality nourishment. Foods rich in vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains have been substituted by foods heavy in added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium. This trend, which began in developed, industrialized countries, has spread to developing countries. These developing countries still stressed and struggling with hunger are now dealing with health problems associated with obesity. Malnutrition once identified by emaciated bodies, is now also associated with obesity.[1]
Contents
[hide]

1 In Developing Countries
2 Measurements and Dietary Changes
3 As a Cause of Childhood Obesity
4 Emerging Markets and Nutritional Transition
5 Nutrition Transition and Health Outcomes
6 Implications for Health Policy
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

[edit] In Developing Countries

For developing countries, nutrition transition is a more advanced problem in urban area than in rural ones. As countries develop, becoming more industrialized, cities arise. Cities offer more imported foods from industrialized countries. Along with more choices come a variety of food, many with high-fat content. More women are working out of the home in cities, and have less time for growing produce, shopping for ingredients, and preparing the often energy-intensive staples of traditional diets. Fufu, for example, a staple of West and Central African diets, takes hours of laborious work to prepare. This combined with the fewer calories burnt in urban jobs than in rural toil, and more sedentary time and the abundance marketing of processed foods that accompanies available televisions, obesity is advancing more rapidly in developing countries' cities than in rural areas.[2]
[edit] Measurements and Dietary Changes

Issues common to wealthy and transitional countries include disaggregation of recipes and careful measurement of added oils and condiments. Yet problems unique to transitional countries deal with the measurement of ingredients used in food. Difficulties stem from incomplete measurement of fiber and various nutrients, absence of added sugar measurement, or lack of measurement of the food as processed. For example, in urban areas of China, a study of the same recipe containing pork and egg showed that there was a noticeable increase in the amount of pork and egg in the dish from 1997 to 2000. In the recipe, the amount of pork increased by 9.7 grams and the amount of egg increased by 2 grams in those three years.[3]
[edit] As a Cause of Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity in developing counties is also of concern. The largest concentration is in Middle Eastern and Eastern European developing countries, while the frequency of obesity in children in Sri Lanka and India is the lowest. This overall increase is of concern to health professionals because childhood obesity is likely the precursor to a rise in cases of pediatric metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome, more commonly referred to as insulin resistance, often leads to many chronic diseases. The concern is that this rise in pediatric metabolic syndrome will probably create a huge public health and socioeconomic burden for developing countries in the future as childhood obesity regularly precedes hyperinsulinemic state. Due to few studies of childhood obesity in emerging markets, little is known on the topic. Findings do show that the increased consumption of white flour products and solid hydrogenated fat leads to an increased rate of metabolic syndrome in children in developing countries while increased physical activity leads to its decrease.[4]
[edit] Emerging Markets and Nutritional Transition

Obesity's health implications are deadly; they include increased prevalence of diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke.[5][6][7][8][9] Subsequent population level economic impacts are equally serious, most notably lost productivity and significant strain on health care systems.[10][11][12][13][14]

The obesity spotlight has, until recently, focused almost exclusively on prevalence in the developed world. But in the last few years, rising rates of obesity in developing countries have raised apprehension among researchers, policy-makers and public-health practitioners alike. Rapidly transitioning countries, often referred to as emerging markets, are of particular concern.[15] This is because these countries are experiencing very high rates of economic development and the trend toward increased prevalence of overweight is now occurring most rapidly in conjunction to accelerated economic growth. Citizens of these emerging market countries (e.g. Brazil, China, India and Mexico) have more disposable income than ever before, and they are spending it on foods that are often highly processed and unhealthy.[16] This trend is compounded by the fact that many transnational food companies (e.g. Kentucky Fried Chicken, Nestle, and McDonalds) have launched aggressive marketing campaigns to penetrate consumer bases in these nations, precisely because of increased disposable income. Processed foods high in fat, sugar and sodium and low in vitamins, fiber and other nutrients (foods of minimal nutritional value or “FMNVs”) are increasingly ubiquitous in many middle-to-low-income countries.[17]
[edit] Nutrition Transition and Health Outcomes

Countries experiencing rapid economic growth typically undergo a period of epidemiological transition: prevalence of infectious disease and parasitic disease (e.g. malaria, measles, respiratory infections, diarrheal disease) decreases and prevalence of non-communicable disease (e.g. diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease, renal disease) increases. This pattern is paralleled by the nutrition transition. Infectious and parasitic diseases are very often predicated and/or exacerbated by macro and micro-nutrient deficiencies. Conversely, non-communicable disease is closely linked to overweight and consumption of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium and cholesterol.[18][19][20][21][22]
[edit] Implications for Health Policy

Economic development does not affect all demographics equally; even in countries showing high rates of economic growth, poverty continues to be a problem in many areas, and continued incidence of undernutrition remains a threat.[23][24] What is surprising about nutrition transition trends is that, in many of the emerging market countries, overweight is becoming an issue among poorer sections of the population. That is, in addition to the rather obvious pattern of increased adiposity among richer demographics, a propensity towards overweight is also manifesting in many lower-income communities. In certain areas, overweight and obesity is now occurring within populations that are also prone to undernutrition.[25][26][27] Health policy in countries experiencing this double-burden must learn to balance continued efforts at reducing under-nutrition with new policies targeted at reducing intake of highly processed, unhealthy foods.
[edit] See also

Detox diet
List of basic nutrition topics

[edit] References

^ Burslem, Chris, IFPRI.(2004) Obesity in Developing Countries: People are Overweight But Still Not Well Nourished. Available online as of 5/7/2008 at: http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/04/global/burslem.htm
^ Obesity: developing world's new burden
^ Popkin, Barry. (2002) Stages of the Nutrition Transition: Dynamic Global Shifts Appear to be Accelerating. Available online as of 5/7/2008 at: http://www.sne.org/conference/documents/BarryPopkin-NutritionTransition.pdf
^ Kelishadi, Roya. (2007) Childhood Overweight, Obesity, and Metabolic Syndrome in Developing Countries.
^ WHO technical report series 916. (2003) Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Report of a joint WHO/ FAO expert consultation. Geneva: WHO. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf
^ Darnton-Hill I, Nishida C, James WP. (2004) A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutrition, 7 (1A):101-121.
^ National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 106:3143-3421, 2002.
^ Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. (2002) Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162 (18):2074-2079.
^ WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. (2004) Obesity and overweight. Geneva: WHO. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en/
^ Chou SY, Grossman M, Saffer H. (2004) An economic analysis of adult obesity: Results from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Journal of Health Economics, 23: 565-587.
^ Cawley J. (2004) The impact of obesity on wages. Journal of Human Resources, 39 (2): 451-474.
^ Lakdawalla D, Philipson T. (2002) The growth of obesity and technological change: A theoretical and empirical examination (working paper 8946). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
^ WHO technical report series 894. (2000) Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva: WHO.
^ Wolf AM, Manson JE, Colditz GA. (2002) The economic impact of overweight, obesity and weight loss. Ed. Eckel R in Obesity: Mechanisms and clinical management. Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2003.
^ Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. (2004) The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. International Journal of Obesity, 28:S2-S9.
^ Drewnowsky A, Popkin BM. (1997) The nutrition transition: New trends in the global diet. Nutrition Reviews, 55:31-43.
^ Mendez M, Popkin BM. (2004) Globalization, urbanization and nutritional change in the developing world. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics.
^ WHO technical report series 916. (2003) Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Report of a joint WHO/ FAO expert consultation. Geneva: WHO. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/who_fao_expert_report.pdf
^ Darnton-Hill I, Nishida C, James WP. (2004) A life course approach to diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutrition, 7 (1A):101-121.
^ National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 106:3143-3421, 2002.
^ Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. (2002) Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk: evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162 (18):2074-2079.
^ WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. (2004) Obesity and overweight. Geneva: WHO. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en/
^ Haddad L, Ruel M, Garrett J. (1999) Are urban poverty and undernutrition growing? Some newly assembled evidence. International Food Policy Research Institute. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.ifpri.org/divs/fcnd/dp/papers/dp63.pdf
^ FAO (2004) Chronic undernutrition among children. Available online as of 7/1/2007 at: http://www.fao.org/sd/dim_en3/en3_040101_en.htm
^ Monteiro CA, Conde WL, Lu B, Popkin BM. (2004) Is obesity fueling inequities in health in the developing world? University of North Carolina Manuscript: Chapel Hill, NC.
^ Doak CM, Adair LS, Bentley M, Monteiro C, Popkin BM (2005) The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox. International Journal of Obesity, 29:129-136.
^ Du S, Mroz TA, Zhai F, Popkin BM (2004) Rapid income growth adversely affects diet quality in China – particularly for the poor! Social Science and Medicine, 59:1505-1515.

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