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PostSubject: Chicken Chicken   Sat Aug 27, 2011 9:28 am

Chicken Chicken

If there is one word that describes chicken, it is versatility. Roasted, broiled, grilled or poached, and combined with a wide range of herbs and spices, chicken makes a delicious, flavorful and nutritious meal. It is no wonder chicken is the world's primary source of animal protein and a healthy alternative to red meat. It is available to enjoy throughout the year.

Food Chart
This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Chicken provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Chicken can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Chicken, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits
Description
History
How to Select and Store
How to Enjoy
Individual Concerns
Nutritional Profile
References

Health Benefits

Chicken is rated as a very good source of protein, providing 67.6% of the daily value for protein in 4 ounces. The structure of humans and animals is built on protein. We derive our amino acids from animal and plant sources of protein, then rearrange the nitrogen to make the pattern of amino acids we require.

A Very Good Source of Protein

People who are meat eaters, but are looking for ways to reduce the amount of fat in their meals, can try eating more chicken. The leanest part of the chicken is the chicken breast, which has less than half the fat of a trimmed Choice grade T-bone steak. The fat in chicken is also less saturated than beef fat. However, eating the chicken with the skin doubles the amount of fat and saturated fat in the food. For this reason, chicken is best skinned before cooking.

Protein Protects Against Bone Loss in Older People

Studies show that some sections of the population, especially older people, have poor protein intake. But protein may be important in reducing bone loss in older people. In one study, the 70- to 90-year-old men and women with the highest protein intakes lost significantly less bone over a four-year period than those who consumed less protein. Animal protein, as well as overall protein intake, was associated with preserving bone.

With data from 615 participants in the Framingham (MA) Osteoporosis Study, researchers examined the relationship between protein intakes in 1988-1989 and changes in bone mineral density four years later. They accounted for all factors known to increase risk of bone loss.

Participants who reported the lowest daily protein intakes—roughly equivalent to half a chicken breast—had lost significantly more bone in the hip and spine four years later than those with the highest intakes—equivalent to about 9 ounces of steak and 1 cup of tuna salad. The group with the next lowest intake—equivalent to about 2 cups of cottage cheese—also lost significantly more bone than the highest protein intake group, but only at the hip.

Chicken's Cancer-Protective Nutrients

Chicken is a very good source of the cancer-protective B vitamin, niacin. Components of DNA require niacin, and a deficiency of niacin (as well as other B-complex vitamins) has been directly linked to genetic (DNA) damage. A four-ounce serving of chicken provides 72.0% of the daily value for niacin.

Chicken is also a good source of the trace mineral, selenium. Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defense systems, and immune function. Accumulated evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials and studies on animal models of cancer have suggested a strong inverse correlation between selenium intake and cancer incidence.

Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain the cancer-preventive activities of selenium. Selenium has been shown to induce DNA repair and synthesis in damaged cells, to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, and to induce their apoptosis, the self-destruct sequence the body uses to eliminate worn out or abnormal cells. In addition, selenium is incorporated at the active site of many proteins, including glutathione peroxidase, which may be the most important for cancer protection. One of the body's most powerful antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase is used in the liver to detoxify a wide range of potentially harmful molecules. When levels of glutathione peroxidase are too low, these toxic molecules are not disarmed and wreak havoc on any cells with which they come in contact, damaging their cellular DNA and promoting the development of cancer cells. Four ounces of chicken supply 40.0% of the daily value for selenium.

Protect against Alzheimer's and Age-related Cognitive Decline

Research published in the August 2004 issue of the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry indicates regular consumption of niacin-rich foods like chicken provides protection against Alzheimer's disease and age-related cognitive decline.

Researchers from the Chicago Health and Aging Project interviewed 3,718 Chicago residents aged 65 or older about their diet, then tested their cognitive abilities over the following six years. Those getting the most niacin from foods (22 mg per day) were 70% less likely to have developed Alzheimer's disease than those consuming the least (about 13 mg daily), and their rate of age-related cognitive decline was significantly less. (August 23, 2004)

B vitamins for Energy

Chicken is not only a very good source of niacin, but is also a good source of vitamin B6]. This particular mix of B-complex vitamins makes chicken a helpful food in supporting energy metabolism throughout the body, because these B vitamins are involved as cofactors that help enzymes throughout the body guide metabolic reactions.

Both of these B vitamins are important for energy production. In addition to its DNA actions, niacin is essential for the conversion of the body's proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into usable energy. Niacin helps optimize blood sugar regulation via its actions as a component of a molecule called glucose tolerance factor, which optimizes insulin activity. Vitamin B6 is essential for the body's processing of carbohydrate (sugar and starch), especially the breakdown of glycogen, the form in which sugar is stored in muscle cells and to a lesser extent in our liver. A four-ounce serving of chicken supplies 72.0% of the daily value for niacin and 32.0% of the DV for vitamin B6.

Vitamin B6 for Cardiovascular Health

In addition to its role in energy metabolism, vitamin B6 plays a pivotal role as a methyl donor in the basic cellular process of methylation, through which methyl groups are transferred from one molecule to another, resulting in the formation of a wide variety of very important active molecules. When levels of B6 are inadequate, the availability of methyl groups is also lessened. One result of the lack of methyl groups is that molecules that would normally be quickly changed into other types of molecules not only do not change, but accumulate. One such molecule, homocysteine, is so damaging to blood vessel walls that high levels are considered a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. As noted above, 4 ounces of chicken will supply about one-third (32.0%) of a person's daily needs for vitamin B6.

Description

Chicken is a very popular food in this country as well as throughout the world. And no wonder since it is delicious, nutritious and can be prepared a multitude of ways. From southern fried chicken to barbequed chicken to tandoori chicken to homemade chicken soup, chicken is appreciated and valued by people of all ages as well as by diverse cultural culinary traditions.

In Latin, the scientific name for chicken is Gallus domesticus.

History

The practice of raising chickens for food is ancient, with the first domestication of poultry thought to have occurred in southern Asia over 4,000 years ago. The popularity of eating chickens has fluctuated throughout history; at times, chicken has been thought of as a luxury item, while at other times, it has fallen into disregard and obscurity.

During the early history of the United States, the settlers brought chickens with them from Europe. While at first, chickens were raised by individual families for their own consumption, as the developing towns expanded and flock sizes increased, surplus chickens were sold or bartered for groceries. While the development of modern refrigeration methods and more rapid transportation in the late 19th century increased poultry production, it was not until after World War II that developments in raising poultry increased, making chickens more available, and more popular, throughout the country.

Today, the leading producers of poultry are China, the Russian Federation, the United States, Brazil, Japan and Mexico.

How to Select and Store

When purchasing whole chickens, look for ones that have a solid and plump shape with a rounded breast. Whether purchasing a whole chicken or chicken parts, the chicken should feel pliable when gently pressed, and it should not have an "off" smell. Do not buy chicken if the sell-by date on the label has already expired.

The color of the chicken's skin, white or yellow, does not have any bearing on its nutritional value. Regardless of color, the skin should be opaque and not spotted.

If purchasing frozen chicken, make sure that it is frozen solid and does not have any ice deposits or freezer burn. Additionally, avoid frozen chicken that have frozen liquid in the package as this may indicate that it has been defrosted and refrozen.

If possible, purchase chicken that has been organically raised or that is "free-range" since these methods of poultry raising are both more humane and produce chickens that are both tastier and better for your health. Organically grown chickens have been fed an organically grown diet and have been raised without the use of hormones or antibiotics. Free-range chickens are allowed access to the outdoors as opposed to being confined to the henhouse.

Instead of purchased skinned chicken breasts at the store to provide yourself with the lowest fat form of chicken, purchase chicken breasts with the skin still intact. Wait to remove the skin from the chicken breasts after cooking. (In this way you'll improve the moisture and flavor and aroma of your chicken, while not significantly increasing the total fat content.)

Chicken should be stored in the coldest section of your refrigerator. If the store packaging is intact and secure, store it this way since this will reduce the amount of handling. Yet, if the packaging is not secure, and it seems as if the chicken liquids will leak, rewrap it securely before storing. This is very important to make sure that the chicken does not contaminate other foods in the refrigerator. Refrigerated raw chicken can keep for two to three days.

To freeze chicken, remove it from its packaging, wash it and then pat it dry. Using either aluminum foil or freezer paper, wrap the chicken parts carefully so that they are as airtight as possible. Well wrapped frozen chicken can keep for about one year.

How to Enjoy

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

Tips for Cooking with Chicken:

Be extremely careful when handling raw chicken that it does not come in contact with other foods, especially those that will be served uncooked. Wash the cutting board, utensils and even your hands very well with hot soapy water after handling the chicken.

If your recipe requires marinating, you should always do so in the refrigerator as chicken is very sensitive to heat, which can increase the chances of spoilage. When defrosting a frozen chicken, do so in the refrigerator and not at room temperature. Put the chicken on a plate to collect any liquid drippings.

Grilling meat this summer? Be sure to enjoy it with a healthy serving of Cole slaw, or lightly steamed cabbage broccoli Brussels sprouts, kale or cauliflower. These cruciferous vegetables greatly increase our body's ability to detoxify heterocyclic amines, the carcinogenic compounds produced when meat is grilled or otherwise charbroiled.

In a study published in Carcinogenesis (Kassie F, Uhl M, et al., February 2003), researchers looked at the effects on the liver and colon of supplementing the diet of animals given a heterocyclic amine carcinogen with Brussels sprouts or red cabbage.

Brussels sprouts reduced the development of pre-cancerous cells 41-52% in the colon and 27-67% in the liver, and drastically diminished the size (85-91%) of pre-cancerous lesions in the liver.

Red cabbage moderately decreased (19-50%) the number of pre-cancerous lesions that developed in the liver and markedly reduced (41-83%) the size of those that did occur.

These highly protective effects are due to crucifers' ability to significantly increase the activity of enzymes involved in both Phase I and Phase II detoxification.

Brussels sprouts' stronger protective effects are thought to be due to the fact that this cruciferous vegetable contains 2-3 times the amount of phytonutrients called glucosinolates than are found in red cabbage. Glucosinolates increase Phase II glucuronidation activity, one of the primary pathways through which toxins that are made even more dangerous by Phase I, are rendered water-soluble and ready for elimination from the body. So, boost your body's ability to protect you from the cancer-promoting compounds formed when grilling meat or fish by enjoying these foods with a healthy serving of crucifers. Liven up your plate with the vibrant colors of Cole slaw made from red cabbage, carrots and scallions. For a bit of Indian flavor, dish up some healthy sautéed cauliflower spiced with turmeric. Or be adventurous and give Brussels sprouts a try. Tossed with virgin olive oil, balsamic vinegar, raisins and walnuts, lightly steamed Brussels sprouts may turn out to be one of your favorite vegetables.

A Few Quick Serving Ideas:

Chicken salad can be prepared numerous ways and can be served for lunch or dinner. One of our favorite recipes is to combine the chicken with fresh lemon juice, and olive oil, and mix in garden peas, leeks, almonds and raisins.

For a quick meal with an Asian flair, healthy sautée chopped chicken breast with your favorite vegetables. Add tamari, sesame seeds, ginger, garlic and/or the seasonings of your choice.

Add pieces of diced chicken breast to white bean chili to rev up its protein and nutritional content.

Wrap cooked chicken pieces in a whole wheat tortilla, sprinkle with chopped tomatoes and onions, top with grated cheese and broil, making yourself a healthy burrito.

Individual Concerns

Federal statistics show that cases of antibiotic-resistant campylobacter are rising, and a FDA investigation concluded that the use of antiobiotics in chicken production is one significant cause. The FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine has proposed a ban on using these drugs in poultry because of evidence that the drug's use in chicken can cause people to get sick from drug-resistant bacteria.

At issue is a family of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. Some fluoroquinolones are sold to treat animals, but others are a leading treatment for humans who get food poisoning from campylobacter, a bacterium found mostly in chicken. Humans have used fluoroquinolones since the 1980s, but resistance didn't begin significantly increasing until veterinarians started using the drugs in the mid-1990s, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

If you eat chicken, choose organic chicken, not only because of this issue but for all the reasons given above in the How to Select and Store section.

Heart Attack Risk

Meat Significantly Increases Heart Attack Risk

Results of the CARDIO2000 case-control study indicate that frequent red meat consumption significantly increases risk of "acute coronary syndrome," a label which includes greatly increased risk of unstable angina, plaque rupture, blood clot formation and heart attack. (Kontogianni MD, Panagiotakos DB, et al., Eur J Clin Nutr)

In this research, involving 848 patients and 1078 healthy age- and sex-matched controls, eating more than 8 servings of red meat a month was associated with 52% increased risk of a "cardiac event," e.g., cardiac arrest and sudden death.

Eating white meat more than 12 times a month increased likelihood of having a cardiac event by 18%.

Study participants who ate 8 or more portions red meat or 12 or more portions of white meat each month had 4.9 and 3.7 higher odds of having a heart attack, respectively, compared to those with low meat intake (less than 4 portions of red meat and less than 8 portions of white meat per month, respectively). Practical Tip: Limit your consumption of red meat to once a week and white meat to twice a week. Enjoy more meals featuring fish, eggs, and whole grain/legume combinations. Let our Recipe Assistant help you find quick, easy and delicious ideas for meat-free meals.

Chicken and Purines

Chicken contain naturally-occurring substances called purines. Purines are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. In some individuals who are susceptible to purine-related problems, excessive intake of these substances can cause health problems. Since purines can be broken down to form uric acid, excess accumulation of purines in the body can lead to excess accumulation of uric acid. The health condition called "gout" and the formation of kidney stones from uric acid are two examples of uric acid-related problems that can be related to excessive intake of purine-containing foods. For this reason, individuals with kidney problems or gout may want to limit or avoid intake of purine-containing foods such as chicken.

Nutritional Profile

Chicken is a very good source of protein and niacin. It is also a good source of selenium, vitamin B6 and phosphorus. For an in-depth nutritional profile click here: Chicken.

In-Depth Nutritional Profile
In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, an in-depth nutritional profile for Chicken is also available. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart
In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Chicken breast, roasted
4.00 oz-wt
113.40 grams
223.40 calories
Nutrient Amount DV
(%) Nutrient
Density World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
tryptophan 0.39 g 121.9 9.8 excellent
vitamin B3 (niacin) 14.41 mg 72.0 5.8 very good
protein 33.79 g 67.6 5.4 very good
selenium 28.01 mcg 40.0 3.2 good
vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) 0.64 mg 32.0 2.6 good
phosphorus 242.68 mg 24.3 2.0 good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating Rule
excellent DV>=75% OR Density>=7.6 AND DV>=10%
very good DV>=50% OR Density>=3.4 AND DV>=5%
good DV>=25% OR Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Chicken

References

Bren L. Antiobiotic resistence down on the chicken farm. USDA FDA Consumer, volume 35, number 1, Jan-Feb 2001 2001.
Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986 1986. PMID:15210.
Hannan MT, Tucker KL, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. Effect of dietary protein on bone loss in elderly men and women: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 2000 Dec;15(12):2504-12 2000.
Kassie F, Uhl M, Rabot S, Grasl-Kraupp B, Verkerk R, Kundi M, Chabicovsky M, Schulte-Hermann R, Knasmuller S. Chemoprevention of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced colonic and hepatic preneoplastic lesions in the F344 rat by cruciferous vegetables administered simultaneously with the carcino. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Feb;24(2):255-61. 2003. PMID:12584175.
Kontogianni MD, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C. Relationship between meat intake and the development of acute coronary syndromes: the CARDIO2000 case-control study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar 14; [Epub ahead of print] 2007. PMID:17356558.
Margen S and the Editor, Univ of California at Berkley Wellness Letter. The Wellness Encyclopedia of food and nutrition. New York: Health Letter Associates 1992 1992.
Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Scherr PA, Tangney CC, Hebert LE, Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal N. Dietary niacin and the risk of incident Alzheimer's disease and of cognitive decline. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;75(Cool:1093-9. 2004. PMID:15258207.
Vogt, T. M. Ziegler, R. G. Graubard, B. I et al. Serum selenium and risk of prostate cancer in U.S. blacks and whites. Int J Cancer. 2003 Feb 20; 103(5):664-70 2003.
Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988 1988. PMID:15220.
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PostSubject: Re: Chicken Chicken   Sat Aug 27, 2011 7:59 pm

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Nutrition Carbohydrates Food List

Nutrition Quotes
Cumin seeds Cumin seeds
Cloves Cloves - health
Cinnamon, ground Cinnamon, ground
Cilantro/Coriander seeds Cilantro/Coriander seeds
Chili pepper, dried Chili pepper, dried
Cayenne pepper Cayenne pepper
Black pepper Black pepper
Basil Basil - health
Whole wheat Whole wheat
Spelt Spelt
Rye Rye - health care
Quinoa Quinoa
Oats Oats - health care
Millet Millet
Corn Corn - health care
Buckwheat Buckwheat
Brown rice Brown rice
Barley Barley
Walnuts Walnuts
Sunflower seeds Sunflower seeds
Sesame seeds Sesame seeds
Pumpkin seeds Pumpkin seeds
Peanuts Peanuts
Olive oil, extra virgin Olive oil, extra virgin
Flaxseeds FlaxseedsCashews Cashews
Almonds Almonds
Venison Venison
Lamb Lamb - health care
Chicken Chicken
Calf's liver Calf's liver
Beef, lean organic Beef, lean organic
Tofu Tofu - health care
Tempeh Tempeh
Soybeans Soybeans
Pinto beans Pinto beans
Navy beans Navy beans
Miso Miso - health
Lima beans Lima beans
Lentils Lentils
Kidney beans Kidney beans
Garbanzo beans (chickpeas) Garbanzo beans (chickpeas)
Dried peas Dried peas
Black beans Black beans
Yogurt Yogurt
Milk, goat Milk, goat
Milk, 2%, cow's Milk, 2%, cow's
Eggs Eggs - health care
Cheese, low-fat Cheese, low-fat


Cheese, low-fat Cheese, low-fat
Watermelon Watermelon
Strawberries Strawberries
Raspberries Raspberries
Raisins Raisins
Prunes Prunes
Plums Plums
Pineapple Pineapple
Pears Pears
Papaya Papaya
Oranges Oranges
Lemon/Limes Lemon/Limes
Kiwifruit Kiwifruit
Grapes Grapes
Grapefruit Grapefruit
Figs Figs - health
Cranberries Cranberries
Cantaloupe Cantaloupe
Blueberries Blueberries
Bananas Bananas
Apricots Apricots
Tuna Tuna - health
Shrimp Shrimp
Scallops Scallops
Sardines health
Salmon Salmon
Halibut Halibut
Cod Cod health
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Turnip greens
Tomatoes Tomatoes
Swiss chard Swiss chard
Sweet potatoes Sweet potatoes
Squash, winter Squash, winter
Squash, summer Squash, summer
Spinach Spinach
Sea vegetables Sea vegetables
Romaine lettuce Romaine lettuce
Potatoes Potatoes
Onions Onions
Olives Olives
Mustard greens Mustard greens
Mushrooms, shiitake Mushrooms, shiitake
Mushrooms, crimini Mushrooms, crimini
Leeks Leeks
Kale Kale Kale
Green peas Green peas
Green beans Green beans
Garlic Garlic
Fennel Fennel

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Cucumbers Cucumbers
Collard greens Collard greens
Celery Celery
Cauliflower Cauliflower
Carrots Carrots
Cabbage Cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Broccoli Broccoli
Bell peppers Bell peppers
Beets Beets
Avocados Avocados
Asparagus Asparagus
Apples Apples
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