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PostSubject: Tempeh Tempeh   Sat Aug 27, 2011 9:22 am

Tempeh Tempeh

Although not a common item in most households in the United States, tempeh, with its distinctively nutty taste and nougat-like texture, is increasing in popularity. It easily absorbs the flavors of the other foods with which it is cooked making it adaptable to many types of dishes. Tempeh can be found in health food stores and specialty markets throughout the year.

Tempeh has been a staple in Indonesia for over 2000 years. It is a highly nutritious fermented food traditionally made from soybeans and its high protein content makes it a wonderful substitute for meat. It is typically made by cooking and dehulling soybeans, inoculating them with a culturing agent (like Rhizopus oligosporus), and then incubating the innoculated product overnight until it forms a solid cake.

Food Chart
This chart graphically details the %DV that a serving of Tempeh provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Tempeh can be found in the Food Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Tempeh, featuring information over 80 nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.

Health Benefits
Description
History
How to Select and Store
How to Enjoy
Individual Concerns
Nutritional Profile
References

Health Benefits

A food made from fermented soybeans, tempeh provides not only the protein found in soybeans but their many other health benefits as well. The soybean is the most widely grown and utilized legume in the world, with the U.S. being responsible for more than 50% of the world's production of this important food. Soy is one the most widely researched, health-promoting foods around. Soy's key benefits are related to its excellent protein content, its high levels of essential fatty acids, numerous vitamins and minerals, its isoflavones, and its fiber. While a complete review of all the benefits soy foods offer could easily fill a large book, recently there has been controversy as to the extent to which soybeans are a health-promoting food; we address this issue in our Q+A Are there special concerns related to soy foods?

A Health-Promoting Meat Replacer

Soybeans are regarded as equal in protein quality to animal foods. Just 4 ounces of tempeh provides 41.3% of the Daily Value (DV) for protein for less than 225 calories and only 3.7 grams of saturated fat. Plus, the soy protein in tempeh tends to lower cholesterol levels, while consuming protein from animal sources tends to raise them, since they also include saturated fat and cholesterol. In addition to healthy protein, some of tempeh's nutritional high points include:

Riboflavin: 4 ounces of tempeh provides 23.5% of the DV for this B-vitamin. A nutrient essential for the transfer reactions that occur to produce energy in the mitochondria, riboflavin is also a cofactor in the regeneration of one of the liver's most important detoxification enzymes, glutathione.

Magnesium: Tempeh also provides 21.9% of the DV for Nature's blood vessel relaxant, magnesium, in just 4 ounces. In addition to its beneficial role in the cardiovascular system, magnesium plays an essential role in more than 300 enzymatic reactions, including those that control protein synthesis and energy production.

Manganese and Copper: That same 4 ounces of tempeh will give you 72.5% of the DV for manganese and 30.5% of the DV for copper. These two trace minerals serve numerous physiological functions including being cofactors for the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase.

Beneficial Effects on Cholesterol Levels

Soy protein has been found in recent years to be excellent for a number of different conditions, one of the most important ones being heart disease. Soy protein has been shown in some studies to be able to lower total cholesterol levels by 30% and to lower LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, levels by as much as 35-40%. This is important because high levels of cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, tend to become deposited into the walls of blood vessels, forming hard plaques. If these plaques grow too large or break, they can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Some studies have even shown that soy protein may be able to raise HDL cholesterol levels. HDL cholesterol travels through the body collecting the cholesterol that has been deposited in the arteries, so it can be taken away and removed by the liver. One of the main goals of atherosclerosis treatment and prevention, therefore, is to lower LDL cholesterol levels while raising HDL levels. And soy is one food that may be able to do both at once.

In addition, soy foods like tempeh are rich in dietary fiber. When eaten, the fiber in tempeh binds to fats and cholesterol in food, so less is absorbed. In addition, tempeh's fiber binds to bile salts and removes them from the body. Since the liver gets rid of cholesterol by transforming it into bile salts, their removal by fiber forces the liver to use more cholesterol to form more bile salts, leading to lower cholesterol levels overall.

Stabilize Blood Sugar at Healthy Levels

Another condition for which tempeh can be very beneficial is diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes. The protein in tempeh is excellent for diabetic patients, who tend to have problems with animal sources of protein. The protein and fiber in tempeh can also prevent high blood sugar levels and help in keeping blood sugar levels under control. Some diabetics even find that the effects of soy foods, such as tempeh, and other legumes on blood sugar are so profound that they need to monitor their new blood sugar levels and adjust their medications accordingly. Of course, all of this should only be done under the supervision of a doctor. Diabetes patients are especially susceptible to atherosclerosis and heart disease, which is the number one killer of persons with diabetes. Keeping cholesterol levels low with soy foods may be useful for preventing these heart problems. In addition, soy foods have been shown to lower high triglyceride levels. Triglyceride levels tend to be high in diabetic patients, and high triglyceride levels are another factor of diabetics' increased risk for heart disease.

Promotes Gastrointestinal Health

The fiber in tempeh also provides preventative therapy for several other conditions. Fiber is able to bind to cancer-causing toxins and remove them from the body, so they can't damage colon cells. Tempeh, which is made from high-fiber soybeans, may therefore be able to help reduce the risk of colon cancer. As a matter of fact, in areas of the world where soy foods are eaten regularly, rates of colon cancer, as well as some other cancers, including breast cancer, tend to be low.

A Healthy Transition through Menopause

One of the more popular uses of soy foods lately has been in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Soybeans contain active compounds called isoflavones that act like very weak estrogens in the body. These phytoestrogens bind to estrogen receptors and may provide enough stimulation to help eliminate some of the uncomfortable symptoms that occur when natural estrogen levels decline. Studies have shown that women who consume soy foods report a significant reduction in the amount of hot flashes that they experience. There is also some evidence that soy foods may even be able to help reduce the bone loss that typically occurs after menopause. And as women's risk for heart disease significantly increases at menopause, soy foods' numerous beneficial cardiovascular effects make tempeh a particularly excellent choice for frequent consumption as menopause approaches.

Promotes Men's Health

In epidemiological studies, genistein, a naturally occuring isoflavone found chiefly in soy foods, has been consistently linked to lower incidence of prostate cancer. A recent study of human prostate cancer cells demonstrated some of the mechanisms behind genistein's anti-prostate cancer effects. Genistein not only induced chemicals that block cell cycling, thus preventing the proliferation of cancerous cells in the prostate, but at high concentrations actually induced apoptosis, the self-destruct sequence the body uses to eliminate worn out or abnormal cells.

Another study looked at the antioxidant effects of these isoflavones in soy, and found that genistein protected cells in healthy men from an increase in free radical production by inhibiting the activation of an important inflammatory agent called NF-kappaB and by decreasing levels of DNA adducts (a marker of DNA damage).

Description

Tempeh is a wonderful, high protein, southeastern Asian treat. Not only does this collaged cake of fermented soybeans have a distinctive nutty taste but its nougatlike texture readily absorbs the different flavorings with which it is cooked. Tempeh is typically made by cooking and dehulling soybeans, inoculating them with a culturing agent (like Rhizopus oligosporus), and then incubating the innoculated product overnight until it forms a solid cake.

History

Tempeh originated in Indonesia where it has been a staple of the traditional cuisine for over 2000 years. Shortly after colonizing Indonesia, the Dutch introduced tempeh and other native foodstuffs into Europe. It was not until the 20th century that this Southeast Asian delight was introduced into the United States. Tempeh is now gaining increased popularity in this country as people look for ways to increase their intake of soybeans, and they discover tempeh's versatility and delicious taste.

How to Select and Store

For many years it was only possible to find tempeh in natural foods and Asian stores. Yet, with the growing demand for soy foods, tempeh is now becoming more and more available in supermarkets throughout the country. Depending upon the store, tempeh may either be kept in the refrigerated or freezer section. In addition to plain soy tempeh, oftentimes varieties that include grains or vegetables are available.

Look for tempeh that is covered with a thin whitish bloom. While it may have a few black or grayish spots, it should have no evidence of pink, yellow or blue coloration as this indicates that it has become overly fermented.

Refrigerated tempeh can keep in the refrigerator for up to ten days. If you do not consume the whole package of tempeh at one time, wrap it well and place it back in the refrigerator. Tempeh will keep fresh for several months in the freezer.

How to Enjoy

For some of our favorite recipes, click Recipes.

A Few Quick Serving Ideas:

For a twist on the traditional reuben sandwich, place broiled tempeh on a slice of whole grain bread, layer with sauerkraut, top with cheese or meltable soy cheese, then broil in oven for a few minutes until the sandwich is hot and toasty. Top with Russian dressing made by combining ketchup and soy mayonnaise, and enjoy.

A vegetarian option to spaghetti and meat sauce is spaghetti and tempeh sauce. Just substitute tempeh for ground beef in your favorite recipe.

Add extra flavor, texture and nutrition to chili by adding some tempeh.

Individual Concerns

Allergic Reactions to Tempeh

Although allergic reactions can occur to virtually any food, research studies on food allergy consistently report more problems with some foods than with others. It's important to realize that the frequency of problems varies from country to country and can change significantly along with changes in the food supply or with other manufacturing practices. For example, in several part of the world, including Canada, Japan, and Israel, sesame seed allergy has risen to a level of major concern over the past 10 years.

In the United States, beginning in 2004 with the passage of the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA), food labels have been required to identify the presence of any major food allergens. Since 90% of food allergies in the U.S. have been associated with 8 food types as reported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, it is these 8 food types that are considered to be major food allergens in the U.S. and require identification on food labels. The 8 food types classified as major allergens are as follows: (1) wheat, (2) cow's milk, (3) hen's eggs, (4) fish, (5) crustacean shellfish (including shrimp, prawns, lobster and crab); (6) tree nuts (including cashews, almonds, walnuts, pecans, pistachios, Brazil nuts, hazelnuts and chestnuts); (7) peanuts; and (Cool soy foods.

These foods do not need to be eaten in their pure, isolated form in order to trigger an adverse reaction. For example, yogurt made from cow's milk is also a common allergenic food, even though the cow's milk has been processed and fermented in order to make the yogurt. Ice cream made from cow's milk would be an equally good example.

Food allergy symptoms may sometimes be immediate and specific, and can include skin rash, hives, itching, and eczema; swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat; tingling in the mouth; wheezing or nasal congestion; trouble breathing; and dizziness or lightheadedness. But food allergy symptoms may also be much more general and delayed, and can include fatigue, depression, chronic headache, chronic bowel problems (such as diarrhea or constipation), and insomnia. Because most food allergy symptoms can be caused by a variety of other health problems, it is good practice to seek the help of a healthcare provider when evaluating the role of food allergies in your health.

Tempeh and Oxalates

Soybeans, and foods made from them like tempeh, are among a small number of foods that contain measurable amounts of oxalates, naturally-occurring substances found in plants, animals, and human beings. When oxalates become too concentrated in body fluids, they can crystallize and cause health problems. For this reason, individuals with already existing and untreated kidney or gallbladder problems may want to avoid eating soybean-based products like tempeh. Laboratory studies have shown that oxalates may also interfere with absorption of calcium from the body. Yet, in every peer-reviewed research study we've seen, the ability of oxalates to lower calcium absorption is relatively small and definitely does not outweigh the ability of oxalate-containing foods to contribute calcium to the meal plan. If your digestive tract is healthy, and you do a good job of chewing and relaxing while you enjoy your meals, you will get significant benefitsâ€"including absorption of calciumâ€"from calcium-rich foods plant foods that also contain oxalic acid. Ordinarily, a healthcare practitioner would not discourage a person focused on ensuring that they are meeting their calcium requirements from eating these nutrient-rich foods because of their oxalate content. For more on this subject, please see "Can you tell me what oxalates are and in which foods they can be found?"

Soybean-based Foods and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

A large percentage of the conventionally grown soybeans in the United States come from genetically modified (GM) seeds. If you are looking your exposure to GM foods, choose organically grown soybeans (and foods such as tofu, tempeh and miso made from it), since the current USDA organic regulations prohibit the use of GM seeds for growing foods to be labeled as organically grown. A wide assortment of processed food contain soy-based ingredients (such as soy protein and hydrolyzed vegetable protein); look for the organic version of these items in your foods and/or look for foods that note that they do not contain any genetically modified ingredients (sometimes this is noted on the packaged as "GMO-free"). For more on this subject, see this Q+A.

Nutritional Profile

Tempeh is a very good source of manganese and a good source of protein, copper, phosphorus, vitamin B2 and magnesium. In addition, tempeh is a good source of monounsaturated fats.

For an in-depth nutritional profile click here: Tempeh.

In-Depth Nutritional Profile
In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, an in-depth nutritional profile for Tempeh is also available. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, amino acids and more.

Introduction to Food Rating System Chart
In order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source (below the chart you will find a table that explains these qualifications). If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesn't contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. (To view this food's in-depth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients - not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good - please use the link below the chart.) To read this chart accurately, you'll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving size we used to calculate the food's nutrient composition. This serving size will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value (DV%) that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we established in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's "Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling." Read more background information and details of our rating system.

Tempeh, cooked
4.00 oz-wt
113.40 grams
223.40 calories
Nutrient Amount DV
(%) Nutrient
Density World's Healthiest
Foods Rating
manganese 1.45 mg 72.5 5.8 very good
protein 20.63 g 41.3 3.3 good
copper 0.61 mg 30.5 2.5 good
phosphorus 286.91 mg 28.7 2.3 good
vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0.40 mg 23.5 1.9 good
magnesium 87.55 mg 21.9 1.8 good
World's Healthiest
Foods Rating Rule
excellent DV>=75% OR Density>=7.6 AND DV>=10%
very good DV>=50% OR Density>=3.4 AND DV>=5%
good DV>=25% OR Density>=1.5 AND DV>=2.5%

In-Depth Nutritional Profile for Tempeh

References

Davis JN, Kucuk O, Djuric Z, Sarkar FH. Soy isoflavone supplementation in healthy men prevents NF-kappaB activation by TNF-alpha in blood lymphocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001 Jun 1;30(11):1293-302 2001.
Ensminger AH, Esminger M. K. J. e. al. Food for Health: A Nutrition Encyclopedia. Clovis, California: Pegus Press; 1986 1986. PMID:15210.
Fortin, Francois, Editorial Director. The Visual Foods Encyclopedia. Macmillan, New York 1996.
Kritz-Silverstein D, Goodman-Gruen DL. Usual dietary isoflavone intake, bone mineral density, and bone metabolism in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002 Jan-Feb;11(1):69-78 2002.
Shen JC, Klein RD, Wei Q, et al. Low-dose genistein induces cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and G(1) cell-cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells. Mol Carcinog. 2000 Oct;29(2):92-102 2000.
TourismIndonesia.com. Indonesian 'tempe' (tempeh) struggles to remove second-rate image. http://www.tourismindonesia.com/articles/tempe_02.asp 2001.
Wood, Rebecca. The Whole Foods Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall Press; 1988 1988. PMID:15220.
Yamori Y, Moriguchi EH, Teramoto T et al. Soybean isoflavones reduce postmenopausal bone resorption in female Japanese immigrants in Brazil: a ten-week study. J Am Coll Nutr 2002 Dec;21(6):560-3 2002.
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PostSubject: Re: Tempeh Tempeh   Sat Aug 27, 2011 7:55 pm

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Nutrition Carbohydrates Food List

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Cumin seeds Cumin seeds
Cloves Cloves - health
Cinnamon, ground Cinnamon, ground
Cilantro/Coriander seeds Cilantro/Coriander seeds
Chili pepper, dried Chili pepper, dried
Cayenne pepper Cayenne pepper
Black pepper Black pepper
Basil Basil - health
Whole wheat Whole wheat
Spelt Spelt
Rye Rye - health care
Quinoa Quinoa
Oats Oats - health care
Millet Millet
Corn Corn - health care
Buckwheat Buckwheat
Brown rice Brown rice
Barley Barley
Walnuts Walnuts
Sunflower seeds Sunflower seeds
Sesame seeds Sesame seeds
Pumpkin seeds Pumpkin seeds
Peanuts Peanuts
Olive oil, extra virgin Olive oil, extra virgin
Flaxseeds FlaxseedsCashews Cashews
Almonds Almonds
Venison Venison
Lamb Lamb - health care
Chicken Chicken
Calf's liver Calf's liver
Beef, lean organic Beef, lean organic
Tofu Tofu - health care
Tempeh Tempeh
Soybeans Soybeans
Pinto beans Pinto beans
Navy beans Navy beans
Miso Miso - health
Lima beans Lima beans
Lentils Lentils
Kidney beans Kidney beans
Garbanzo beans (chickpeas) Garbanzo beans (chickpeas)
Dried peas Dried peas
Black beans Black beans
Yogurt Yogurt
Milk, goat Milk, goat
Milk, 2%, cow's Milk, 2%, cow's
Eggs Eggs - health care
Cheese, low-fat Cheese, low-fat


Cheese, low-fat Cheese, low-fat
Watermelon Watermelon
Strawberries Strawberries
Raspberries Raspberries
Raisins Raisins
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Plums Plums
Pineapple Pineapple
Pears Pears
Papaya Papaya
Oranges Oranges
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Kiwifruit Kiwifruit
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Figs Figs - health
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Potatoes Potatoes
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Olives Olives
Mustard greens Mustard greens
Mushrooms, shiitake Mushrooms, shiitake
Mushrooms, crimini Mushrooms, crimini
Leeks Leeks
Kale Kale Kale
Green peas Green peas
Green beans Green beans
Garlic Garlic
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Cucumbers Cucumbers
Collard greens Collard greens
Celery Celery
Cauliflower Cauliflower
Carrots Carrots
Cabbage Cabbage
Brussels sprouts
Broccoli Broccoli
Bell peppers Bell peppers
Beets Beets
Avocados Avocados
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Apples Apples
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